# Definition, Characteristics, Properties, and Parallelogram Formulas

Parallelogram Formula – In mathematics, of course we are familiar with parallelograms. In fact, a parallelogram can also be said to be one of the shapes that is often discussed in learning mathematics. However, maybe in the past you only got knowledge about parallelograms only a small part. Well, in this article there is a more complete explanation of parallelograms.

Of course for those of you who want to deepen your knowledge of mathematics, especially about parallelograms. Of course, the discussion in this article will be very helpful. Starting from the definition, the properties of a parallelogram to the formula for a parallelogram will be discussed in more detail here.

## Definition of Parallelogram

A parallelogram or parallelogram (English: parallelogram ) is a two-dimensional plane shape formed by two pairs of edges, each of which is the same length and parallel to its partner, and has two pairs of angles, each of which is equal to the angle opposite it.

A parallelogram is a two-dimensional flat shape which when viewed from its shape is almost like a quadrilateral which has two parallel ribs facing each other. Then, a parallelogram can also be interpreted as a quadrilateral formed by two pairs of parallel lines with angles that are not 90 degrees or not right angles.

In addition, a parallelogram also has no axis of symmetry and this is what makes it different from a flat, square shape. Where basically a square flat wake has four axes of symmetry. From this explanation, it can be concluded that a parallelogram is a two-dimensional flat shape formed by two pairs of ribs and each has the same length and faces each other.

## Nature of the Parallelogram

After knowing how to understand the parallelogram. The next thing we will discuss together is the nature of a parallelogram. If seen based on the picture above, it can be concluded that a parallelogram has several properties. Now for more details, here are some of the properties possessed by a parallelogram.

### 1. Have Parallel Sides of the Same Length

In the parallelogram image above, it can be seen that the parallel sides have the same length. Try to pay attention if there are two equal sides in the parallelogram, namely side AB will be the same as side DB then for side AD it will be the same as side BC.

### 2. Opposing Angles Are Equal

From the picture above, it can be concluded that a parallelogram has opposite angles. Where angle A will face angle C, then angle B will face angle D. In addition, every angle that faces will have the same angle magnitude. For example, angle A will have the same angle measure as angle C.

### 3. Have Straight Angles

Let’s take a good look at the picture above, where the adjacent angles of the parallelogram will form an angle with a sum of 180 degrees. That means there will be two corners that are close to each other and mutually aligned. In the picture above, you can see that if angle A is added to angle B, it will produce an angle of 180 degrees. This also applies to angle C and angle D.

### 4. Has a Diagonal Divider

In general, a parallelogram will have a diagonal that can divide the flat shape into two parts but with the same size. The diagonal referred to here can be shown from the lines AC and BD as shown in the picture above.

### 5. There are Diagonals that Intersect

The diagonals of a parallelogram can not only divide the parallelogram, but will also experience the condition of intersecting each other in the middle area of ​​the parallelogram.

### 6. Has a Total Angle of 360 Degrees

Every angle in a parallelogram does not form a 90 degree angle. That means the angle of a parallelogram is not a right angle. Where the sum of the angles of a parallelogram is 360 degrees.

### 7. Does not have an Axis of Symmetry

A parallelogram is a flat shape that has no axis of symmetry and only has two axes of rotation.

Well, those are some of the properties possessed by a parallelogram flat shape. Where each of its properties will make a parallelogram different from other flat shapes.

## Characteristics of a Parallelogram Flat Shape

After we know how the nature of a parallelogram. The next material that we will study together is the characteristics of a parallelogram flat shape. Each flat shape will have different characteristics from one another. The existence of these characteristics will make it easier for us to recognize each flat wake object more easily.

A parallelogram is a two-dimensional plane shape formed by two pairs of ribs, each of which has the same length and is parallel to its partner. In addition, a parallelogram also has two pairs of angles, each of which has the same measure and each angle will also face each other.

A parallelogram with four edges of the same length will turn into a rhombus shape. Where the characteristics of other parallelograms are having two diagonal lines, two pairs of equal angles and consisting of two acute angles and also obtuse angles.

Now, for more details, here are some of the characteristics possessed by a parallelogram flat shape.

1. A parallelogram has four sides and four vertices.
2. A parallelogram will have two pairs of parallel sides with the same conditions.
3. The angles of a parallelogram are relatively the same.
4. A parallelogram will have two obtuse angles and two acute angles.
5. A parallelogram has two diagonals with different lengths.
6. A parallelogram has no fold symmetry.
7. A parallelogram has only secondary rotational symmetry.

Well, that’s a summary of the characteristics possessed by a parallelogram flat shape. As explained earlier, the existence of these characteristics will make a parallelogram different from other flat shapes.

## Parallelogram Formula

After understanding how the properties and characteristics of a parallelogram flat shape. Next we will learn about the formula for a parallelogram. In general, the formula for a parallelogram is the circumference formula and the area formula. Now for more details, here are the two formulas that are owned by a parallelogram flat shape.

### 1. The formula for the circumference of a parallelogram

The perimeter of a parallelogram can be calculated by adding up all the sides in the parallelogram. Where the formula can be written as follows.

Circumference = AB side + BC side + CD side + AD side

### 2. Area of ​​a parallelogram formula

Next, there is the formula for the area of ​​a parallelogram which can be calculated by multiplying the base by the height of the flat shape. To be able to get the height of the parallelogram, you can draw a straight line from the top position to the bottom position at one of the angles at the top of the parallelogram flat shape. Where the formula for the area of ​​a parallelogram can be written as follows.

Area = base x height

## Application of Parallelograms in Everyday Life

Like other flat shapes, parallelograms are also often applied to various forms of objects around us. But maybe we don’t really understand if these objects have adopted a parallelogram flat shape. So, so that you can better understand what forms of objects have adopted the shape of a parallelogram flat shape, here is a complete explanation.

### 1. Tiles

Tiles are the first example of an object adopting a parallelogram shape. Tiles available on the market today have various shapes and sizes. Some of the most popular tile shapes or designs on the market are rectangles, squares, rhombuses and parallelograms.

The tiles themselves are used for the purposes of beautifying the walls and also the floors. Take a look at the floor or wall tiles of a private house, who knows who has adopted a parallelogram flat shape.

### 2. Building

It is undeniable that in this modern era, many buildings adopt various forms of flat shapes. One of them is a building that adopts a parallelogram flat shape like the Dockland office building located in Hamburg.

Adopting a flat shape like a parallelogram will make the building look attractive and unique. It is not uncommon for architects to combine several flat shapes at once. So maybe some of the buildings around you also have a shape like a parallelogram flat shape? Try to start paying attention to your surroundings at this time.

### 3. Roof

The third example is the roof. Let’s observe again how the side view of the gable roof, hut roof or shed roof of a house, which usually will have sides of four geometric planes and two dimensions consisting of two pairs of parallel sides with the same length. This can make the roof is the easiest example as an object with a parallelogram shape that is around our environment.

### 4. Craft Paper

The craft paper that we usually use will have different shapes and sizes. One of the most common and easy forms to find is the parallelogram flat shape. Of course, this craft paper is also very easy for you to find around.

### 5. Desk

Most ordinary desks or desks will have a rectangular or square shape, in which a rectangular table will have two pairs of parallel sides that are the same length. This makes it one of the objects that have a parallelogram shape.

### 6. Eraser

Next is the eraser which often adopts various forms. Starting from circles, squares, rectangles to flat shapes of parallelograms. Of course, you are also familiar with various forms of erasers that are so unique. Now, try to pay attention again whether the shape of the eraser that you have has a shape like a parallelogram flat shape.

### 7. Solar Panels

Did you know that the solar panels around us also have a parallelogram shape. Usually solar panels will be produced in two flat shapes that are quite popular, namely rectangular shapes and also parallelogram shapes.

Solar panels with a parallelogram shape are usually preferred by all groups. This is none other than because solar panels with a parallelogram shape will be easier to install on the side of the roof of the house shed. It is not surprising that solar panels with a parallelogram flat shape are easier to find than solar panels with other shapes.

### 8. Stairs

Let us observe again the steps that are around us. If we look carefully, then we will find a parallelogram shape on the steps of the ladder.

### 9. Existing Designs on Cardigans

Cardigans and sweaters usually have designs that incorporate different geometric figures. One of the easiest geometric drawings to find on products such as socks and knitwear on woolen garments is the parallelogram flat shape.

### 10. Existing Structures on the Guitar Fret Board

When we look in more detail at the fretboard on a guitar instrument, we will find it easier to find certain marker points on fret numbers 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 17, 19, 21, and 24, where sometimes the marker points will be replaced with bars. The bars will usually adopt a parallelogram shape.

So, those are some examples of objects in our environment that often adopt the shape of a parallelogram, which you may have found one of these objects around.

## Another type of flat wake complete with its characteristics

After we learn together about the ins and outs of a parallelogram flat wake. Of course, we will also find it easier to understand a parallelogram flat shape. In mathematics, flat shapes are not only limited to parallelograms.

However, there are still several other flat shapes that also have their own characteristics that make them different from other flat shapes. So, for more details, what are flat shapes other than parallelograms, here is a full review.

### 1. Circle

A circle is a plane shape consisting of all points in a plane and with a certain distance from the center point. Where all the points inside the circle will have the same distance. This distance will be called r or radius, which we usually know as the radius. Circle plane shapes are composed of curves and not of straight lines. This makes circles different from polygons and also does not enter into the polygon type.

### 2. Square

Next there is a square wake which is also commonly referred to as a square. A square shape also enters into a two-dimensional flat shape which is formed from four edges and has sides of the same length.

### 3. Rectangle

A rectangle is formed from two equilateral lengths that are parallel to their counterparts. A rectangle has four right angles whose sides face each other.

### 4. Triangle

A triangle is a polygonal building shape that has three ends and three vertices. Where the triangle is also included in one of the basic shapes in geometry. There are three types of triangles, namely equilateral triangles, isosceles triangles and arbitrary triangles, in which the three types of triangles have different side lengths and angles.

### 5. The pentagon

We often know pentagons by the term pentagon which has five equal sides and these sides will be interconnected.

### 6. Trapezoid

A trapezium is a two-dimensional plane shape made up of four edges. Where the two edges of the trapezoid will be parallel to each other but do not have the same length. There are three types of trapezoids namely arbitrary trapezoids, isosceles trapezoids and also right-angled trapezoids.

### 7. Rhombus

Finally there is a rhombus which is formed from four right triangles. Where all the sides of a rhombus are the same length.

So, that’s a summary of the parallelogram and several other flat shapes. After reading this article to the end, I hope you won’t be confused anymore in calculating the formula for the area and perimeter of a parallelogram.