Definition of EIA: History, Benefits, Purpose and Types

What is EIA? – Based on Government Regulation Number 29 of 1986, AMDAL (Environmental Impact Analysis) is the result of a study on the impact of a planned activity on the environment, which is required for the decision-making process.

The amount of development in various regions in a country is unavoidable because it is for the sake of progress and development for the region itself. The development carried out is usually in the form of several sectors, such as industry, factories, and others. In carrying out development, an understanding of Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) is needed . This is necessary because an EIA can prevent environmental damage from occurring.

If environmental damage can occur due to development, it can endanger humans, especially those who live near the development. With the EIA, every development carried out by the company can make the surrounding community feel safe to live in the development area.

Along with the development of the times as well as the development of the times, the EIA has begun to experience development, so those who want to carry out development must be able to understand the developments that occur in the EIA. In general, an EIA document will be prepared before carrying out construction. The AMDAL documents that are made will be examined by the agency that deals with AMDAL issues.

Therefore, both those who want to carry out development or the institution that handles AMDAL documents must really understand about AMDAL. With the EIA documents that have been made, the agency in charge of the EIA can make a decision whether construction can be carried out or not. If from the AMDAL document there are many things that can harm the environment, then development cannot be carried out, and vice versa.

In order to use and understand AMDAL well, we need to know about the meaning of AMDAL, the purpose of AMDAL, and the benefits of AMDAL. If we already know some of these things, then our knowledge about EIA will increase. This article will discuss about AMDAL further. So, Matobers, keep reading this article until it’s finished.

Definition of EIA

Basically, before the EIA was created, when carrying out construction, it had paid attention to the sustainability of the environment as stated in Law Number 4 of 1982 concerning Principles of Environmental Management. The Act contains a lot of management of the environment, natural resources, artificial resources, and others.

Along with the times, the law on environmental management has also developed. Indonesia made a Government Regulation in which the meaning of Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) is explained.

Based on Government Regulation Number 29 of 1986, AMDAL is the result of a study on the impact of a planned activity on the environment, which is required for the decision-making process. With the existence of this Government Regulation, it can be said that those who wish to carry out development must pay attention to the condition of the environment whether it can be damaged or can it even develop.

About 7 years later, Government Regulation Number 29 of 1986 underwent an improvement, resulting in a new Government Regulation appearing, namely Government Regulation Number 51 of 1993 concerning Environmental Impact Analysis. In this PP, Environmental Impact Analysis (AMDAL) is explained in more detail or it can be said that there are several definitions of AMDAL, such as multi-sector activity AMDAL, regional AMDAL, and regional AMDAL. In fact, this PP also explains the agency responsible for the AMDAL and the AMDAL commission.

The agency referred to under the PP is the Minister or the Head of a non-departmental institution whose function is to carry out a business plan or activity in question. In addition, the Governor of the Level I region functions to provide oversight of activities or businesses that are under his authority.

Based on PP No. 51 of 1993, the AMDAL for integrated or multi-sectoral activities is the result of a study of the significant impacts of planned integrated businesses or activities on the environment in a single ecosystem expanse and involves the authority of more than one agency. Environmental AMDAL is the result of a study regarding the significant impact of a planned business or activity on the environment in a single ecosystem expanse and concerns the authority of a responsible agency.

Meanwhile, still in the same PP, regional AMDAL is the result of a study regarding the significant impact of a planned business or activity on the environment in a single unified economic expanse of the zone system of regional development plans in accordance with the general regional spatial layout plan and involving the authority of more than one agency. responsible.

In the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), AMDAL is an assessment of the positive and negative impacts of planning a project (development) that covers environmental, social and economic aspects.

Thus, it can be said that the EIA is the result of a study or assessment of development which can be positive (good impact on the environment) and negative (bad impact on the environment).

A Brief History of EIA

At first, this EIA originated in the United States around 1969 in The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 or better known as NEPA 1969. With the presence of NEPA 1969, a system for controlling the impact of various activities that can damage the environment. The system is made in the form of policies or regulations. Until now, the system that regulates the impact of development that can damage the environment has begun to be used by many countries, including Indonesia.

When the AMDAL system began to enter Indonesia, the Indonesian government began to make laws regarding the Principles of Environmental Management. However, before using this Law, the Indonesian government still used a development policy in the form of program planning which was supervised by a top down policy , planning, execution and control system .

At that time such a development system was running very well, but over time, development gaps began to slowly develop between the center and the regions. This gap can be seen in areas on the border where access is still inadequate.

In national development, it will be carried out based on policies, program planning, and development project activity plans. Development carried out with full planning will reduce the failure of the development. Planning before carrying out this development has been carried out since the New Order era. In 1969 the Outline of State Policy (GBHN) and a short term, medium term and long term development policy were established. The long term is the construction of a 25 year development plan. The medium term is a 15 year development plan. Short term is a development plan carried out for 5 years.

At that time, the Indonesian government only focused on development policies for economic progress and physical development began to realize the importance of paying attention to the environment when carrying out development. With this awareness, the Indonesian government began to formulate Law Number 4 of 1982 concerning Principles of Environmental Management.

It didn’t stop there, the Indonesian government began to improve its policy on AMDAL by making Government Regulation Number 29 of 1986 concerning Environmental Impact Analysis. After using the PP to carry out development, the Indonesian government began to consider it more deeply when carrying out development. In other words, the Indonesian government wants to develop and expand development not only with an environmental perspective, but sustainable development.

Therefore, a Government Regulation Number 51 of 1993 concerning Environmental Impact Analysis was formed. The formation of this PP was also based on the formulation of the Committee for the World Conference which was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The conference was chaired by Brudlant. Also from that conference, the UNCED ( United Nation Conference on Environmental Development ) committee gave an idea in the form of the theme of sustainable development.

Within the theme of sustainable development, there are several things that must be achieved, including environmental sound , community empowering , local economic development , and strengthening of culture .

Indonesia’s desire to realize sustainable development led to a Government Regulation Number 27 of 1999 concerning Environmental Management. This government regulation replaces PP No. 51 of 1993 and removes regional or regional AMDALs. The AMDAL policy is slowly getting stronger along with the reform and decentralization government policies. In other words, local governments (districts, cities and provinces) have a very important role in carrying out sustainable development in their regions.

Purpose of EIA

There are several purposes when an AMDAL is used to carry out development in an area. The following is the purpose of creating an EIA.

1. Provide input regarding the planning of a business activity or development

The first objective of the EIA is to be able to provide advice so that the development or business activities carried out do not pollute and damage the environment. This is because making an EIA makes us know what needs to be done so that development does not pollute and damage the environment, so that development can proceed as it should.

With this input, all parties involved in a development project or business activity have a role in protecting the environment. In addition, the development will go well because it will not violate laws and government regulations regarding the environment and AMDAL.

2. Providing Information to the Public About Environmental Management

The second objective of having an EIA is for the public to become informed about environmental management when a development project takes place. People will feel safe because the environment around them is not damaged and not polluted. In fact, the surrounding community can also contribute to ongoing development projects.

This goal is very, very useful for the community and those who carry out development projects because they both benefit. Communities can benefit from a development and they (owners of capital and owners of development projects) can build in peace, so that development projects that have been completed can last a long time.

3. Granting business or activity permits

The third purpose of AMDAL is that the government can grant business or activity permits. A permit to build a business or carry out an activity must be owned by the executors. If a business or activity does not have a permit, then there are things that can harm the environment and can disturb the lives of the people around the business being built and the activities being carried out.

EIA is one of the requirements for starting a business or activity. This is because the EIA can provide information about the environment to the government, so that the government can make a decision whether a business and activity to be built can be carried out or not.

4. Become a Reference for Development Planning in a Region

The fourth objective of the AMDAL is to become a reference in making development plans in an area. A development will be carried out properly and optimally if a careful plan is made. One of the plans that need to be considered when carrying out a development is making an AMDAL.

EIA can be said to have a fairly important role in the success of a development because it will not pollute and damage the environment. This is important to do so that natural conditions can be maintained properly.

5. To Be Made A Legal And Scientific Documentation

The fifth purpose of AMDAL is as a form of legal and scientific documentation. For this purpose, the government and the project owner will have legal evidence, so that the implementation of development will not be hampered

In addition, the EIA can also be used as scientific evidence that the environment around the development will not be damaged. This scientific evidence can be proven by conducting research and research before carrying out a development project.

AMDAL benefits

With the EIA, starting from the government, capital owners, project owners, to the community itself will be able to feel the benefits.

Benefits of EIA for Government

1. As a form of government responsibility in protecting and managing the environment.

2. Environmental pollution and environmental damage can be prevented.

3. Can maintain a concept of “sustainable development” so that development continues.

4. A policy regarding environmental management can be adopted and properly implemented.

EIA Benefits for Capital Owners

1. With the EIA, it is easy for owners of capital (banks) to approve and provide loan capital for a development.

2. With the EIA, capital owners (individuals or groups) do not hesitate to invest in a development project.

Benefits of EIA for Project Owners

1. Giving confidence to the government, capital owners, and the community that the development projects implemented will not pollute the environment and damage the environment.

2. Can provide information about the environmental conditions that exist around the development project.

3. Development projects will continue without having to worry about violating Government Regulations or applicable laws.

4. Provide solutions to environmental problems that will occur in the future.

Benefits of EIA for Society

1. The community can find out how the development plan is progressing.

2. Can supervise when a development project is being implemented.

3. Can find out information, whether the development project causes environmental damage or not.

4. Have a stake during the development project.

EIA type

Basically, there are 4 types of AMDAL, but when Government Regulation Number 27 of 1999 appeared, there were two types of AMDAL. This is because the regional AMDAL contained in Government Regulation Number 51 of 1993 has been removed with the aim of expanding development that is not only based on the environment, but into sustainable development.

1. Single EIA

A single AMDAL is a form of business or activity in which the authority is held by an agency or company that is very knowledgeable about the business or activity being carried out.

2. Multisectoral EIA

A multisectoral AMDAL is a study result which contains the significant impacts of a planned activity or business on the environment in one ecosystem and the authority is held by more than one agency or company.


EIA is very important to do before carrying out construction because it prevents environmental damage. If there is damage to the environment, it will have a negative impact on living things, it can even thwart development. Therefore, for agencies or companies that wish to carry out construction, it is obligatory to pay attention to environmental conditions and prepare an AMDAL.