Definition of Morals: Regarding Morals and Examples – Advances in technological science have also led to the development of significant changes in people’s lifestyles and mindsets in various aspects.
These changes on the one hand bring convenience and on the other hand cause anxiety. Ease in fulfilling the necessities of life and anxiety due to a shift in the order of moral values that exist in society as a result of external factors with a society that has opened itself up and absorbed some values from outside.
This can cause damage to the moral order or moral crisis as a Muslim or Muslim woman which will lose identity, and can fall into actions that are not commendable, such as corruption, collusion, nepotism, sexual harassment, robbery to the point of taking someone’s life.
Morals are very important to the life of every Muslim, both personally and in society. Because with morals a person can perfect his personality. Therefore, every aspect of Islamic teachings is oriented towards fostering and forming noble morals (karimah).
Definition of Morals
In terms of language, the word morals comes from Arabic which has been absorbed into Indonesian. Which in Arabic the word morals is the plural word khuluqun which means:
- Tabi’at , namely the nature that has been formed in humans without wanting (without will) or without being striven for (without effort).
- Adat , namely the nature of human beings that is strived for (trying) through training, namely based on desire.
- Character , its scope includes things that become character and things that are strived for so that they become customs and habits.
In short, the word morality means decency and religion (ethics). There is also the word akhlakul karimah which means noble and commendable deeds which are manifested in the form of good attitudes, sayings and deeds in accordance with Islamic teachings which you can understand in the comic book Morals in the Al’Qur’An which is packaged in the form of animated comics so that it is more fun to learn.
So, the notion of morality can be interpreted as human behavior that is carried out deliberately, starting from a training process that becomes a habit, originating from the impulse of the soul to do things easily, without going through a process of thought, consideration or research. For more details, there is a difference about morals and the science of morality.
What’s the difference?
Morals are related to human behavior that is carried out intentionally which arises from spontaneous impulses of the soul.
The science of morality is the science that studies and gives instructions on how to do good and avoid evil, in accordance with the guidance of Islamic law.
Morals use the determination of good or bad human actions by measuring the teachings of the Qur’an, as Allah says:
يٰٓاَهْلَ الْكِتٰبِ قَدْ جَاۤءَكُمْ رَسُوْلُنَا يُبَيِّنُ لَكُمْ كَثِيْرًا مِّمَّا كُنْتُمْ تُخْفُوْنَ مِنَ الْكِتٰبِ وَيَعْفُوْا عَنْ كَثِيْرٍەۗ قَدْ جَاۤءَكُمْ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ نُوْرٌ وَّكِتٰبٌ مُّبِيْنٌۙ
“O People of the Book! Indeed, Our Apostle has come to you, explaining to you many things from (the contents of) the book that you hid, and many (also) that he left. Indeed, there has come to you a light from Allah, and a clear Book.”
(Qs Al-Maidah: verse 15)
Kinds of Morals and Examples
Based on the understanding of morals, in general, morals are divided into two parts, namely:
1. Noble or Praiseworthy Morals (Al-Akhlakul Mahmudah or Karimah)
Noble or commendable morals are also called Akhlakul Mahmudah or Akhlakul Karimah, namely attitudes and behavior that are noble or praiseworthy towards Allah, fellow human beings and their environment. These noble qualities for every Muslim need to be known which are sourced from the Qur’an and hadith. This commendable character greatly guarantees the safety of human life, in relation to God, personal life, society and the state.
2. Bad or Despicable Morals (Al-Akhlaqul Mazmumah)
Disgraceful morals are also called Akhlakul mazmumah , namely bad attitudes and behavior towards God, fellow humans and other creatures and the environment. Based on the understanding of bad morals, it is expected that every Muslim avoids disgraceful traits because this greatly damages human life, both in personal, family, community and state life, and so does the relationship with Allah.
Examples of Commendable and Despicable Morals
Examples of Commendable Morals (Al-Akhlakul Mahmudah)
There are several characteristics that can be included in the group of noble character, namely:
a. Examples of Commendable Morals Against Allah
Noble character towards God is defined as human behavior as a creature created by Him, in principle, human beings who have faith and morality acknowledge the Oneness of God , who has created humans to be the most perfect creatures on this earth. As His words:
وَاللّٰهُ اَخْرَجَكُمْ مِّنْۢ بُطُوْنِ اُمَّهٰتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ شَيْـًٔاۙ وَّجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْاَبْصَارَ وَالْاَفْـِٕدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُوْنَ
” And Allah brought you out of the wombs of your mothers in a state of not knowing anything, and He gave you hearing, sight, and conscience, so that you may be grateful .” (QS. An Nahl (16): verse 78).
The verse above shows that Allah has created man with a solid and perfect body and equipped him with five senses such as hearing, sight, smell, reason and conscience. Humans should be grateful with the five senses that God has given. As God’s perfect creatures, it is appropriate for humans to be grateful for what God has given and to use these five senses to pay attention to evidence of God’s oneness, and to obey and obey Him.
Examples of noble morals towards God include:
- Ikhlas – Which means holy, pure, clear and not mixed with anything else. A person’s actions are said to be holy if they are done only because of Allah alone, with sincere intentions, keeping away from riya (pointing to others) when doing good deeds.
- Repent – That is an attitude of regretting the bad deeds done, trying to get rid of all the prohibitions and doing good deeds.
- Patience – Can withstand difficulties with various tests and seek His pleasure.
- Gratitude – An attitude of making the best use of both physical and non-physical, and increasing good deeds with the aim of getting closer to Him.
- Put your trust – Try your best and pray, surrendering everything to Allah, to achieve something that is expected.
- Hope – The attitude of the soul that is hoping for something that pleases God.
- Be Fearful – Fear of Allah’s punishment if you disobey His commands.
b. Examples of Noble Morals Against Fellow Humans
In accordance with the notion of noble character, it is not only done to Allah SWT, but also needs to be done to fellow human beings. In addition, one factor is the strength of one’s faith, seen from daily behavior towards other people, for Muslims who obey the rules will reflect their noble character towards others.
1) Maintain good relations
Like helping each other with neighbors, giving each other if there is more sustenance, or helping each other in terms of kindness.
2) Say the truth
Day by day there is more and more information that is outside of our minds, creates wrong input/opinion and people sometimes follow news that turns out to be not true (hoax).
3) Don’t belittle other people
Allah commands those who believe, not to belittle other people. Feeling himself more, even though we are not aware that there is something better and more mindful than the breadth of our thoughts.
4) Think well (Husnuzon)
Husnuzan to others is a commendable trait that must be applied physically and mentally, speech and attitude, so that what we live is always pleasing to God. Because suuzon’s attitude is like “humans eat dead human flesh.” As Allah says:
وَّلَا تَجَسَّسُوْا وَلَا يَغْتَبْ بَّعْضُكُمْ بَعْضًاۗ اَيُحِبُّ اَحَدُكُمْ اَنْ يَّأْكُلَ لَحْمَ اَخِيْهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوْهُۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ ۗاِنَّ اللّٰهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
“ O you who believe! Stay away from prejudice, in fact, some prejudice is a sin and do not find fault with others and do not let any of you backbite some of the others. Does any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? Of course you feel disgusted. And fear Allah, verily Allah is Most Repentant, Most Merciful.” QS. Al-Hujurat : verse 12.
Affection is the original nature (fitrah) of humans that has been innate. However, this trait is a potential that must always be maintained, because if it is not maintained and developed as well as possible or left to be lost it will foster other negative feelings such as anger, hatred, hostility, envy, envy and many others that lead to wrong paths. But if that feeling is nurtured, an attitude will emerge:
- Sense of help
- Brotherhood (Ukhuwah)
- Keeping promises
To see various examples of other commendable and noble good morals, Matobers can read the book 28 Noble Morals which explains the meaning, characteristics, and also examples of actions that show a person’s commendable morals.
c. Examples of Commendable Morals Against Yourself
In addition to morals to God and to fellow human beings, don’t forget morals to yourself. Which means maintaining physical and spiritual properties getting better every time. By :
- Maintain chastity and self-respect
- Qana’ah: accept what is a gift from God.
- Pray to God
- Be patient with Allah’s provisions
- Put your trust in Allah
In the book The Peak of Knowledge is Morals, we can learn what things we can do to show commendable morals in everyday life, both in the world of work, and many more.
Examples of Despicable Morals (Al-Akhlaqul Mazmumah)
a. Examples of morals mazmumah to Allah
It is associating (asking / begging) other than Allah with His creatures. Like worshiping idols, it is included in the heart of a polytheist. Because this is contrary to the teachings of monotheism.
وَاِذْ قَالَ لُقْمٰنُ لِابpet
And (remember) when Luqman said to his son, when he taught him, “O my son! Do not associate partners with Allah, in fact associating (Allah) is truly a great injustice.” (QS. Lukman: verse 13).
The attitude of being arrogant and not acknowledging the power of Allah in this world. As for what causes a person to become arrogant, one of them is because of handsome or beautiful appearance, high position, wealth and so on. One of Allah’s verses that explains human arrogance, QS. An-Nahl: 29
فَادۡخُلُوۡۤا اَبۡوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خٰلِدِيۡنَ فِيۡهَاؕ فَلَبِئۡسَ مَثۡوَى الۡمُتَكَبِّرِيۡن
” So enter the gates of Hell Hell, you will abide therein forever. It must be the worst place for a proud person to be.” ( Qs. An-Nahl: verse 29).
The attitude of changing self-beliefs and switching to other beliefs from the Islamic religion / in short leaving the Islamic religion. Then it will get riddah punishment (death penalty) when in the afterlife. As Allah says:
ۗ وَمَنْ يَّرْتَدِدْ مِنْكُمْ عَنْ دِيْنِهٖ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَاُولٰۤىِٕكَ حَبِطَتْ اَعْمَالُهُمْ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَالْاٰخِرَةِ ۚ وَاُولٰۤىِٕكَ اَصْحٰبُ النَّارِۚ هُمْ فِيْهَا خٰلِدُوْنَ
“Whoever among you apostates from his religion, then he dies in disbelief, then their deeds in this world and in the hereafter have been in vain, and they are the inhabitants of hell, they will abide therein forever.” (QS. Al-Baqarah: verse 217).
The attitude of someone who presents himself as pretending / not being sincere in his heart follows God’s teachings and this includes treasonous traits. Betrayal is also interpreted as deceiving and degrading one’s dignity. As Allah says:
اَلْمُنٰفِقُوْنَ وَالْمُنٰفِقٰتُ بَعْضُهُمْ مِّنْۢ بَعْضٍۘ يَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمُنْكَرِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمَعْرُوْفِ وَيَقْبِضُوْنَ اَيْدِيَهُمْۗ نَسُوا اللّٰهَ فَنَسِيَهُمْ ۗ اِنَّ الْمُنٰفِقِيْنَ هُمُ الْفٰسِقُوْنَ
” The hypocrites men and women, one with another are (the same), they order (do) that is wrong and prevent (action) that is good and they clasped their hands ( miserly). They had forgotten Allah, so Allah forgot them (too). Verily the hypocrites are the wicked.” (Qs. At-Tauba: verse 67)
As for the signs of a hypocrite, according to a Hadith Rasulullah SAW, said:
“There are three signs of a hypocrite (namely) when he speaks he lies, when he makes a promise he violates it and when he is entrusted with a trust he cheats.” (Narrated by Bukhari, Muslim)
b. An example of morals mazmumah to others
The behavior or attitude of a person towards others that is not in accordance with the teachings of the Qur’an and Hadith, including:
- Easily angry (Al-Ghadhab): That is an emotional condition that cannot be controlled which results in behavior that is unpleasant to others.
- Envy or envy (Al-Hasadu): That is the attitude of someone who wants to eliminate the happiness / enjoyment of others and the feeling of wanting to thwart the good of others because they succeed in being better and successful.
- Swearing (Al-Ghiiba): That is the behavior of someone who incites other people to dislike someone and talk bad about it.
- Doing persecution (Al-Zhulmu): That is an act that will harm other people, both material and non-material. And some say, someone who takes the rights of others.
- Stingy (Al-bukhlu): That is the attitude of someone who does not want to help others, both in terms of services and materials.
The perpetrators of this bad character are often due to a lack of knowledge or moral education to distinguish between good and bad. Therefore, it is very important for us to instill good values in the people around us or learn them through Cognitive Theory-Based Moral Education books.
Benefits of Akhlakul Mahmudah Morals
In order to more easily understand what morals are, it is not only necessary to know the meaning of morals, but also to know the benefits of good morals.
1. Loved by Prophet Muhammad SAW
The Prophet Muhammad SAW always taught his people to have easy morals or commendable morals. In a hadith it is stated that a Muslim who behaves in commendable morals will be close to the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
“The people I love the most and are closest to where I will be on the Day of Judgment are those who have noble character. While the people I hate the most and the place farthest from me later on the Day of Judgment are those who are loud and greedy, insulting and arrogant.” (HR. Tirmizi).
2. Obtaining the Highest Position in the Hereafter
A Muslim with commendable morals allows him to obtain the highest position in the hereafter. This is as expressed in the hadith below.
“There is no poverty worse than ignorance and no wealth (wealth) that is more beneficial than the perfection of reason. There is no solitude that is more isolated than ujub (arrogance) and there is no mutual help that is more solid than deliberation. There is no perfection of reason beyond planning (which is good and mature) and there is no higher position than noble character. There is no wara’ that is better than taking care of oneself (maintaining one’s dignity and self-respect), and there is no worship that is more impressive than meditation (thinking), and there is no faith that is more perfect than shyness and patience.” (Narrated by Ibn Majah and Ath-Thabrani)
3. The Weight of the Scales of Good Morals
Easy morals or commendable morals will affect the scales on the Day of Judgment. With commendable morals, a Muslim can be saved by Allah SWT.
“There is no practice which, when put on the scales, is heavier than noble character. In fact, a person with noble character can reach the level of someone who is diligent in fasting and diligent in praying.” (HR. Tirmidhi).
Bonus: Aqidah and Sufism
The various deeds that we carry out will become a charity calculation one day, morals and aqidah must be maintained so that they are mutually sustainable. Before that, do you know what aqidah is? Aqidah comes from the Arabic word ‘aqada, which means certainty, affirmation. Aqidah are things that are believed, in one’s heart and soul. They do not feel doubt or uncertainty about Allah’s commands.
Therefore, when performing worship (prayer) in basic terms we must understand that worship, creed and morals are interconnected so that our faith is fully achieved. So, if one of them is missing, it will be limping. In studying the relationship between faith and morality, Matobers can read the book Learning Aqidah Akhlak: A Brief Review of the Principles of Monotheism and Islamic Morals.
2. Sufism & Scope
The meaning of Sufism also comes from the word Shuf which means wool. This understanding arises because the Sufis often use clothes that come from coarse sheep wool. This symbolizes that they uphold humility and avoid being arrogant. Besides that, it is also a symbol of efforts to leave worldly affairs. People who wear sheep’s clothing are called Mutashawwif and their behavior is called Sufism.
In addition, according to Amin’s terminology, gratitude defines Sufism as a training system with sincerity to cleanse, heighten and deepen the spiritual aspect in order to get closer to Allah SWT (taqarrub) so that all attention is only focused on Him. Sufism is also often associated with the intuition that we have, this is discussed in the book Sufism: An Intuitive Contemplation About Inner Meaning.
The meaning of Sufism in etymology and terminology can be concluded as training to deepen, purify the heart of the life of the world to focus & explore knowledge for later & always be on the path to goodness in order to achieve life goals. With its scope, it strives for self-effort to get closer, to achieve an intense relationship from the servant to His Lord.