Definition of Social Group Dynamics, Factors, and Aspects

Social Group Dynamics – You need to know that social group dynamics is one of the important ingredients in the object of sociological study. The discussion about dynamics in social groups relates to human life which essentially continues to run dynamically.

That is why social processes and social interactions will occur in life which are sometimes not as easy as turning the palm of the hand. There are social problems that can arise in a social civilization from time to time.

This shows that the dynamics of social groups in people’s lives can be realized, both for democratic societies, multicultural societies, as well as modern and traditional societies. To recognize these symptoms, the following is an explanation of social group dynamics, starting from the definition, characteristics, goals, types, factors, aspects, principles, and examples in everyday life: 

Definition of Social Group Dynamics

The dynamics of social groups is related to the study of the factors in the occurrence of social group relations on the basis of behavior or actions in social groups. This can happen through various forms of dynamic interaction in the presence of a supportive social situation. The study of the dynamics of social groups is closely related to the formation of social structures within groups, social norms, feelings of mutual belonging, and the internalization of every embodiment of norms that exist in the social environment of the community.

So, the dynamics of social groups is a series of forms of life problems experienced by individuals and groups who carry out forms of social mobilization quickly so as to change the existing social order in society.

The following is the definition of social group dynamics according to experts:

  1. According to Soerjono Soekanto, social dynamics are social changes in society that experience various forms of problems that can be carried out individually or in groups, so that with social dynamics social order in society does not work properly.
  2. According to Shertzer and Stone , social group dynamics is a form of action taken by a person to achieve a certain goal without knowing the main purpose of that need, resulting in circumstances that force him to justify any means.
  3. According to Slamet Sentosa , social group dynamics is a form of relationship that exists between social groups within their community on a regular basis and has a clear psychological relationship. The meaning of the psychological relationship is the relationship that exists between deep social groups, so that they can feel various situations that are experienced together.
  4. According to Floyd D.Ruch , social group dynamics is a form of analysis of relationships or relationships that occur in social groups related to the actions or behavior patterns of each individual in a particular social situation.
  5. According to Sprott , social group dynamics is a form of analysis regarding the relationships that occur between members of certain social groups in a social environment.
  6. According to Robert F. Bales , social group dynamics is a form of psychological processes that are intertwined in relationships between individuals and can affect a particular group.

Characteristics of Social Group Dynamics

The dynamics that stand out in social groups have the following characteristics: 

  1. The existence of the same motives between individuals with one another so that it can lead to interaction or cooperation to achieve the same goal
  2. The consequences of different interactions arise between one individual and another because of the late feeling of dependence and individual skills
  3. Have a form of group structure or organization and clear assignments and consist of several roles and their respective positions
  4. Appears to reinforce the norms guiding the behavior of group members which then regulate an interaction in an activity or certain activities to achieve a common goal

Social Group Dynamics Goals

The occurrence of social group dynamics has a purpose in a community environment as follows:  

  1. To improve the process of interaction between group members against other group members, so as to create a sense of mutual respect for one another
  2. A sense of solidarity arises between group members so that they can respect and appreciate each other
  3. Created open communication with fellow group members
  4. Appears good faith among fellow group members
  5. The productivity of group members increases
  6. Can develop the group in a better and more advanced direction
  7. Can improve the welfare of its members

Types of Social Dynamics in Society

In practice in society, the dynamics that exist in social groups appear in two types as follows:

  • Small dynamics are dynamics that occur because of small changes that exist in society and affect a social group
  • Big Dynamics are the dynamics that occur in social groups due to changes in progress (forward) or changes in regression (backward) due to the process of social mobility that occurs

The type of group dynamics above is also influenced by the type of social group which is more like the following:

1. Primary group

Primary groups are social groups in which social interaction occurs where members know each other closely and are closely related in everyday life. George Homans revealed that primary groups consist of a number of people who often communicate with one another so that everyone is able to communicate directly (face to face) without going through intermediaries. Examples occur in the family, RT, playmates, religious groups, and so on.

2. Secondary Group

The secondary group is a social group that interacts indirectly, namely by being far apart and lacking in kinship in nature. This relationship usually occurs is more objective, for example, such as relations in political parties, trade union associations and so on.

3. Formal Groups

Formal groups are forms of social groups marked by the existence of rules or statutes (AD) and bylaws (ART). Members of this type of group are appointed by the organization, such as the relationship of all groups or associations that have AD/ART.

4. Informal Groups

Informal group is a form of group that grows out of the process of interaction, attraction and needs of a person in a certain environment. Membership of this type of group is usually irregular and membership is determined by the mutual attraction of individuals and groups. Pran’s duties in this group are clear but usually informal and based only on kinship and sympathy, for example in arisan groups.

Social Group Dynamics Factors

The emergence of group dynamics in a particular social environment is usually influenced by several factors. Both factors that occur internally and externally further strengthen these dynamics within a group, such as the following factors: 

1. Internal Factors

  • The emergence of conflicts between group members, for example social conflicts that occur within a group that cause cracks and changes in patterns and forms of social relations within the group
  • The emergence of differences in understanding in social groups that affect the existence of these individuals in certain social groups 
  • Differences in interests between group members who do not have the same understanding in the end split themselves and choose to join groups that have similarities
  • Changes in the structure of social groups caused by external forces such as threats that cause changes in the social group
  • There is a change in group members due to shocks related to the position of the group members

2. External Factors

  • There are changes in the social situation that occur as a result of the industrialization process which can shift the pattern of relationships and the forms of values ​​held in certain groups
  • There is a change in the economic situation that can result in a shift in social relations that exist in society. So that social relations can change based on interests and are no longer based on kinship
  • Changes in the political situation with changes in the ruling elite can encourage policy changes in social groups in society

 Aspects of Social Group Dynamics

There are several aspects that serve as the background for the existence of social groups in society which greatly influence patterns of social interaction and social order. The following are the aspects that exist in the dynamics of social groups:

1. Adaptation

Adaptation in social groups is needed to adapt a group to the development of the times that are not limited. Adaptation is a form of community or individual and group ability to adapt to a certain social environment.

2. Achievement of Goals

Social groups that try to achieve certain goals will experience changes and developments in the community environment. Efforts to achieve these goals are carried out on a voluntary basis between community members and are carried out with the existence of certain agreements.

3. Integration

Integration in social groups is an effort to remain united in groups to support and realize certain goals. This aspect is important to do as a form of balance and security in one’s life.

4. Maintenance and Expansion Patterns

Social groups need to make changes and create maintenance patterns so that disintegration does not occur in a particular social environment. This social group will also expand, for example by accepting new members and introducing and influencing these members with the cultural elements of the group.

5. Group Communication 

Communication is the foundation of all human interaction and works for all groups. Each group must receive and use the information to communicate. It is this group communication that will later become the transfer of ideas or ideas because of the need for reciprocity between one another

6. Intergroup Conflict 

Conflict is a form of action that can divide social groups that have a variety of different thoughts, especially in making joint decisions. If there is a conflict within a group, there are usually interests behind it, both personal and public interests.

That is why it is not uncommon for a group to have different perceptions or other forms that lead to divisions between individuals, groups, even in a broad sense between tribes, between countries and so on. There are several causes of conflict, such as one example of competition because of positions in a particular group. 

7. Cohesion 

Cohesion is how group members try to like and love one another. There are several ways to increase cohesion in groups, such as increasing interaction, creating common goals, feeling the same fate, creating group uniforms, and so on. 

8. Troubleshooting 

In practice when we go through life it is always winding, sometimes we can feel comfortable, but there are times when we also feel uncomfortable. Including when we live in a group that may have similarities and differences in equating perceptions and common goals. Dynamics like this are actually commonplace in a certain group environment. When you get a problem or conflict, you need a solution to solve it. This problem solving is the process of finding the answer you want to produce, such as the following steps in solving the problem:

  • Defining the problem
  • Finding a diagnosis of the magnitude of the problem and its cause
  • Formulate alternative strategies or plan specific solution strategies
  • Determine and implement the strategy that is most desirable
  • Evaluate the success of the strategies that have been used

Principles of Social Group Dynamics

Here are some principles of group dynamics that you need to know:

  1. Participation or active involvement which includes mental involvement or one’s thoughts and emotions or feelings in a group situation
  2. Mutual respect for each member of the group by having a mutual respect for the opinions, input, and suggestions from other group members
  3. Trust and Trust in building social relations to form social networks (networks) which are eventually established in the form of institutions (institutions) that trust each other with the characteristics of honesty (honesty), fairness (egalitarianism), tolerance (tolerance) and generosity (generosity)
  4. There is a sense of openness to reveal self-information to others with the aim of achieving intimate relationships in a particular environment
  5. Non-Threatening by giving all group members the opportunity to express their hearts and thoughts without fear and threats 

Example of Social Group Dynamics

Based on the explanation of the definitions, types, characteristics, objectives, aspects, factors, and principles of group dynamics above, there are examples that can be taken in this dynamic, as follows: 

  1. Indonesian people give a lot of views on people in Papua with characteristics that tend to be different, namely hard and left behind. The meaning of being tough is in their association and the way they speak and their culture. This condition is part of the dynamics of social groups because it is not certain that all people from Papua are left behind and speak harshly. This kind of perception is actually a form of national integration and also a form of discrimination against certain groups based on race and ethnicity.
  2. In terms of religion, some groups see that the Nahdlatul Ulama Organization (NU) is an organization that defends other religions rather than defending their own religion. There are even a number of people who think that Banser and Banom NU are more guarding the Church than guarding the Mosque. Such an assumption can be said to be a social group dynamic that can harm and erode social integration in diverse social life
  3. Strike action carried out by labor unions to fight for and demand an increase in wages
  4. The general chairman of a certain youth organization resigned because he felt he did not have the same understanding as the other members
  5. There were demonstrations by community organizations against the House of Representatives due to individual or collective organizational disagreements with the rules made by the government
  6. There was chaos in the deliberation activities of certain group members because of differences in understanding between members
  7. The delay in the wheels of the organization was due to conflicts that occurred between members, which resulted in their performance in carrying out their duties in the group 


Well, that’s an explanation of the dynamics of social groups , starting from the definition, characteristics, goals, types, factors, aspects, principles, and examples in everyday life. Do you feel that you have experienced this dynamic phenomenon in social groups? As social beings, we cannot be separated from other people in order to survive. That is why we will find many phenomena in these social relations.