Functions of the Golgi body – One of the materials in biology is about cells. Where in this material we will get acquainted with many cells, one of which is the Golgi body cell or what is widely known as the Golgi apparatus. Simply put, the Golgi body is part of the cell nucleus or nucleus. The existence of the Golgi body also has several functions, you know .
Maybe some of you still remember the function of the Golgi body. However, you don’t need to be confused if some of you don’t really understand the function of the Golgi body. Because you can get a more complete explanation of everything related to the Golgi body in this article.
Definition of the Golgi Body
In the organizational system of life, we will know what is called a cell. In this case, the cell can be interpreted as a part or the smallest unit of living things. The cell itself consists of several other parts that are capable of forming it.
From each part that makes up the cell there is a part whose name is the golgi apparatus. Simply put, the Golgi body is a structure that has a flat sac-like shape and also has a double membrane.
This section has a role in the process of forming lysosomes, peroxisomes, and also the sperm acrosome as well as the process of cell secretion to modify the synthesized material in the cell. The Golgi body is also known as the “Golgi complex”. If you want to see the Golgi body can be seen using the help of an ordinary light microscope.
At least in nature there are about 10 to 20 golgi bodies for every animal cell. Meanwhile, plant cells will have hundreds of Golgi bodies. It should also be noted that the Golgi bodies found in plants are usually called dictyosomes. As the name suggests, this part of the cell was discovered by an Italian histologist and pathologist named Camillo Golgi. Therefore, this one cell is known as the Golgi apparatus.
The Golgi complex itself consists of multiple layers of spaces covered by membranes. In this case there are two parts, namely the cis part and the trans part.
The cis portion has a function as a recipient of vesicles which generally originate from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These vesicles will later be absorbed into the space within the Golgi complex. Where the contents of the vesicles will later be processed in such a way so that they can experience refinement and so on.
Later these rooms will move from the cis section to the trans section. It is in this section that the chamber will eventually break itself down to form vesicles that are ready to be distributed to other parts of the cell or outside the cell.
History of the discovery of the Golgi apparatus
Initially, the Golgi apparatus or Golgi apparatus was first discovered in 1891 by Camillo Golgi. He found a structure similar to the shape of a net in the cytoplasm of cat nerve cells.
He colored it with osmium tetraoxide and silver salts. From the staining process, the organelles appear to have a dark yellow color and are located around the nucleus. Furthermore, Camillo Golgi mentions the organelle as The Internal Reticula Apparatus.
Furthermore, in 1910, a biologist named Prrincito stated that the organelles discovered by Camillo Golgi previously consisted of a group of dictyosomes. Then, there were other cytologists such as Mollenhauer in 1967 who argued that the Golgi apparatus had a relationship with protein synthesis.
Furthermore, the term The Internal Reticular Apparatus was renamed with the term Golgi apparatus. This is because it turns out that the structure of these organelles does not always have a net-like shape.
This condition is proven by an observation with the help of an electron microscope which can show that the organelle consists of several structures bounded by a membrane with different shapes and sizes. This is none other than because the structure is so complex. In addition, the Golgi apparatus or Golgi body is also often referred to as the Golgi complex.
Functions of the Golgi Body
Each structure in the Golgi apparatus always has its own function or role. The explanation below is some of the functions possessed by the golgi apparatus in plants.
- The first function of the golgi apparatus is to help form the vesicle sac. Where later the small sac gland cells which contain enzymes and other materials will carry out the secretory function.
- The next function of the Golgi apparatus is to assist in the formation of the plasma membrane which originates from the Golgi bag or membrane.
- The Golgi apparatus also performs the formation of plant cell walls.
- The Golgi body forms the acrosome in spermatozoa which contains enzymes and can function to break down the egg cell wall and is useful for the process of forming lysosomes.
- The Golgi body functions as a place to process and modify proteins.
- The golgi body functions to select and form molecular packages that can help cell secretion.
- The Golgi apparatus also helps in the formation of glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis. Where this glycoprotein will have a function as the main ingredient needed in the process of secretion of all kinds of glands. In addition, it also functions as a component in the process of forming cell membranes.
- The Golgi apparatus helps in the formation of cell membranes.
- The Golgi body also functions to release secretions at the opening of the cell, forming microsomes and also acrosomes. Not only that, the Golgi apparatus also forms vesicle sacs for cell secretion and helps the process of forming plant cell walls.
- The Golgi apparatus is able to help the formation of lysosomes.
- The Golgi apparatus functions to sort and package molecules in order to make the process of cell secretion easier.
Those are some of the functions of the golgi body in plants. It turns out that if studied further, the function of the Golgi body plays quite a lot.
Features of the Golgi Body and Golgi Bubble
After you know what the functions of the Golgi body are, then we will learn together about the characteristics of the Golgi body itself. The Golgi body has several characteristics, such as its shape in the form of multi-layered bearings. One part of the Golgi body will be surrounded by a collection of bubbles with a round shape which is commonly referred to as the Golgi bubble.
The bubbles will then be divided into three which are seen based on the type and shape. The three types of bubbles are saccules, secretory vesicles and microvesicles. Explanations related to the three types of bubbles are below.
The saccule is a type of bubble that surrounds the Golgi apparatus. The shape of the sacula itself is flattened and stacked. Where basically the surface between the saccule is not the same. This is because there are saccules that are concave in shape and there are also those that are convex in shape.
Then, for secretory vesicles is a collection of bubbles that can be part of the secula. However, the location of these secretory vesicles is at the very edge.
Microvesicles are collections of bubbles that are so small that they keep moving. These microvesicle bubbles originate from the detachment of the rough endoplasmic reticulum which has lost its chromosome granules.
Well, that’s all the descriptions of features and bubbles in the Golgi bodies. With these bubbles, the Golgi body can carry out its functions properly.
The structure of the Golgi apparatus
Previously, it was explained briefly related to the structure that forms the Golgi bodies. However, this point will explain in more detail how the structure of the Golgi apparatus is formed.
The structure of the Golgi body looks like a bundle of sacs that have a branching disk-like shape and at the ends there is a series of small vessels. Where later these vessels can function to collect and wrap carbohydrates, other substances to be transported to the cell surface and contribute materials that can be used to form cell walls.
The Golgi apparatus itself consists of a membrane in the form of tubules and vesicles. From the tubules, small sacs will be released in which there is an enzyme content that can help form the cell wall.
Its shape is practically similar to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the Golgi apparatus is composed of layers of spaces covered by membranes. Where in the golgi apparatus there are two parts, namely the cis part and the trans part.
The cis portion has the function of receiving vesicles originating from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. These vesicles will later be processed in such a way that they can move from the cis to the trans portions.
Meanwhile, the trans part itself is a place where the space will be used to break itself up to form vesicles which can always be ready to be distributed to the cell or outside the cell.
How the Golgi Body Works
The next explanation is about the workings of the Golgi apparatus. This is how the golgi bodies work.
- The Golgi apparatus or Golgi apparatus will later cooperate with the endoplasmic reticulum which is safe for synthesizing proteins.
- Furthermore, protein synthesis will occur which will form transfer vesicles or what can be called microvesicles which will later be carried to the Golgi body organelles in the secula.
- After this process, there will be a process of merging between the proteins that are carried with the transport vesicles from the ER. Where at first suspicion there might be an enlargement of the Golgi body.
- However, this condition will not occur when the Golgi apparatus forms secretory vesicles which have the function of transporting the scular towards the top of the cell which is sent out of the cell.
- On the inside of the Golgi body there will be compaction or condensation before finally being carried to the secretory vesicles.
- In the Golgi body there are also 3 types of galactosyl transferase enzymes which have the function of repairing damage to membrane proteins caused by differences in oligosaccharides.
- Next, secretory vesicles that leave the cell will cross the cell membrane by exocytosis. This process will simultaneously improve the condition of existing cell membranes.
Golgi Body Needs
The Golgi bodies can also be differentiated based on their needs. The lower part which is close to the core or RE is called the forming face , and the upper pole which has a depression to the inner surface is called the senitam maturing face .
Given the name forming face because in that part the material to be secreted will be processed and formed and assembled. Then, for the area that is classified as a forming face , this is also the lowest vesicles and cisternae.
It is called the maturing face because in this part the material to be secreted will experience conditions of maturation, compaction and after that it will be wrapped in a bubble or vacuole. The vacuole itself is the upper part of the cell which is commonly referred to as the secretory vesicle or secretory vesicle.
Later the vesicles or vacuoles will join the cell membrane. Furthermore, the secretory material in it will be removed from the cell.
Enzymes and Lipids in the Golgi Apparatus
The next explanation is about the enzymes and lipids that are in the golgi body. The reason is, in the Golgi body it turns out to be found a lot of heterogeneous enzymes. Enzymes in this part of the Golgi body can also be classified in several parts as explained below.
- Glycosyltransferases are for glycoprotein biosynthesis
- Transferases for the synthesis of phospholipids
- Sulfos and glycosyltransferases are for glycolipid biosynthesis
- Coated Vesicle Variations
It should be noted that the Golgi apparatus or the Golgi apparatus also has a coated vesicle variation . Some of them are as described below.
Coated clathrin was the first to be discovered and researched. Where clathrin coated is composed of clathrin and adaptin. Lateral interaction between adaptin and clathrin will form a shoot formation. When the clathrin bud has grown, proteins that dissolve in the cytoplasm including dynamin will form a ring on each neck of the lever and break it off.
Then, there is a coated copy which functions to pack buds from the per golgi section and between cisternae. Some coated copy proteins will display adaptin-like sequences, which may or may be ascribed to evolutionary appearances of similarity.
Copii coated has the function of packing buds from the endoplasmic reticulum.
It should also be noted that in the Golgi body there are also two proteins. The two proteins are the V-snare SNARE proteins heading to the T-snare which will then join. The T-snare is also a protein contained in the target section while for the V-snare it is a snare vesicle .
This V-snare will look for a T-snare which will then function as one. The Rab protein belongs to the GTPases group. This Rab protein will facilitate and also regulate the speed of vesicle navigation as well as the installation of the V-snare and also the T-snare which are needed in the process of merging the membranes.
Get to know Vesicular Transport in Brief
Endocytosis that has been linked to the receptor which will then take place in the process of taking cholesterol. Cholesterol is present in the blood as well as particles which are often referred to as Low Density Lipoprotein or LDL surrounded by phospholipids and protein.
These proteins are also known as specific receptors present in the cell membrane. LDL itself is a ligand derived from the LDL receptor. Meanwhile, the adaptin molecule is related to the tail of the LDL receptor.
Adaptin molecules are able to encourage attachment to clathrin or a type of protein that will provide facilities in the formation of vesicles. The existence of this clathrin attachment will later make the cell membrane form vesicles which can contain ligand molecules.
Vesicles covered with adaptin and clathrin molecules will attach to the surface, then the vesicles will be released which will then be ready to fuse.
That is an explanation of the explanation of the Golgi body in plants and animals. Starting from the definition of the Golgi body, penem, the characteristics of the Golgi body, the function of the Golgi body, and various explanations related to the Golgi body have been fully summarized in this article.
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