Definition of the Work Force: Types and Figures of the 2022 Workforce

The meaning of the Work Force is – Talking about the work force, it can be said that those who fall into the productive age category. In addition, the workforce also consists of working and unemployed groups. In the world of work itself, almost everything is always an interesting thing to talk about.

In parts of Indonesia, there are still many people who have difficulty getting jobs and all of this is caused by many factors. Basically, the availability of jobs does not always match the number of job seekers in one workforce. This is because every year, the workforce that will apply for jobs will always be different.

In fact, almost every year, the workforce will always appear every year. Then, what exactly is meant by the workforce. Check out a more complete explanation of the workforce, starting from the definition to the types and numbers of the Indonesian workforce in 2022.

About the Labor Force

Based on the explanation from the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), the workforce is the population whose age falls into the working age category, including those who are currently working and those who are in the process of looking for work themselves.

Referring to the explanation above, all people who are in their productive period (working age) will be categorized as the workforce. This group also includes all conditions, both for those who have found work or those who are still unemployed and are in the process of looking for work.

Meanwhile, according to the Financial Services Authority (OJK), the workforce is all people who have reached a certain age and have the ability to work, including those who are already actively working or who are currently still looking for work themselves.

In general, the force is a designation for residents who are at productive age or working age. In this case, the working productive age can be interpreted as everyone who is still looking for work, currently working, to someone who has not found a job (unemployed).

In Indonesia itself, what is meant by productive age includes the age level of the population who are basically able to work and earn their own income.

Based on the provisions of the government, this productive age category itself is in the age range between 15 to 65 years. Meanwhile, for residents who are in this productive age range, but do not work or choose to be unemployed, they will be referred to as the non-labor force. In addition, this group is also of productive age who are not working and do not want to get a job (not currently looking for work).

Labor Force Participation Rate Factor

Quoted from the BPS website, the Labor Force Participation Rate or abbreviated as TPAK is a percentage of the number of the labor force to the population aged ten years and over.

TPAK itself can be supported by several factors. For more details, here are some of the supporting factors for TPAK in an area:

Population Age

The age element referred to in the labor force growth factor is that the age of the population has entered the productive working age, namely at the age of 15 to 65 years and they will be referred to as the labor force.


The division of the labor force and non-labor force can be influenced not only by age, but also by the structure of the population based on gender. The more the composition of the male population in a country, the higher the labor force in that country.

Level of education

The greater the number of productive age population, the higher the labor force. And vice versa, the lower the education level of the population in a country, the lower the labor force in that country. This is because, currently the level of education is one of the requirements to enter the work environment. For example, there are job vacancies where the minimum requirement is an undergraduate degree.

The Problem of Labor Force Impoverishment

Impoverishment of the workforce can occur due to several problems, including:

Productivity in Labor

Impoverishment of the labor force can occur when employment growth is not accompanied by increased productivity in the workforce. This condition also causes workers’ wages to not increase, so that income from the workforce does not increase at all, while on the other hand all needs continue to increase.

This sustainable employment growth can only occur when all sources of growth occur in balance. The benefits of this labor productivity will only be obtained by the workforce who are currently working with limited employment opportunities. This condition also causes social inequality among the workforce to increase.

Not Applying the Latest Technology

In the absence of the application of the latest technology, it will also make the workforce with the latest education and skills not used too much. Low-skilled labor forces will discourage investments that result in poor use of physical capacities. Therefore, at this time, many companies are looking for job applicants who can already use a variety of the latest technological devices.

Lack of Workforce Development

The development of the workforce is also based on the government’s policy of developing a skilled workforce. Workforce development can also be carried out through various availability of quality education as a basis for future workforce training. In addition, the development of the workforce is also adjusted to the skills requirements of companies and the labor market.

The objectives of developing the workforce include making the workforce have high adaptability, so that it can be in line with technological changes and market changes. In addition, workforce development also aims to prepare the need for various skills needed in the future.

Types of Labor Force

Basically, the workforce can be divided into 2 types which are based on their work based on age and activity.

Judging from his work

Full Worker

In this case, what is meant by a fully employed workforce are those who already have a job, where their working hours are in the range of 8-10 hours/day. In addition, this full working group also works regularly within one week (according to the policies that apply to the company). Full workers will also get income for this work.

Half Unemployed

In this case, what is meant by the underemployed workforce are those who have jobs, but their work cannot be seen from their level of productivity, working time or income. In general, this group is also people who do not have a permanent job, such as working for a company. The category of underemployed can be further divided into two categories including:

Half unemployed

The category of underemployment is evident in those who have worked more or less 35 hours in one week.

Underemployment is subtle

Underemployment is imperceptibly those who are not productive at work and have relatively low incomes. In general, this underemployed category is also people who do not have a permanent job as workers in a company.


In this case what is meant by the unemployed labor force are those who are in the productive age range, but do not have a job or are looking for work. This group can quickly transform into the workforce, if they find jobs later.

There are six types of unemployment, among which are as follows:

Frictional unemployment

Frictional unemployment is unemployment caused by the difficulty of job seekers or job applicants in finding job seekers and job vacancies that exist and are appropriate.

Seasonal unemployment

Seasonal unemployment is a condition of unemployment that occurs due to changing seasons, such as farmers.

Cyclical unemployment

Cyclical unemployment is unemployment that exists due to the ups and downs of cycles in an economy, so that the demand for work becomes lower when compared to the supply of labor.

Structural unemployment

Structural unemployment as unemployment caused by a change in the structure or composition of the economy. For example, there has been a shift in the economy from what was initially dominant in the agricultural sector to being dominant in the industrial direction.

Technological unemployment

Technological unemployment is a condition of unemployment that is used in a production process. The pace of this change itself is getting faster and faster.

Unemployment due to lack of aggregate demand
Unemployment occurs because there is total demand in society based on various investment activities.

Grouped Based on Age and Work Activity

This work force can also be distinguished based on work status or activities currently carried out. Grouping like this will also make it easier to calculate and see the magnitude of the number of workers and unemployed in the midst of a community group.

What is the Total Indonesian Workforce in 2022?

Based on data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), the total workforce in Indonesia reached 144.01 million in February 2022. This number alone reached 69.06% of the total working age population, which totaled 208.54 million people.

According to the BPS definition, “working age population” is a population aged 15 years or more. While the “labor force” is the working age population who are working, or have a job, but are temporarily not working and unemployed.

The largest workforce is in the age group of 25-29 years, reaching 17.18 million people. Followed by the 30-34 year age group with 16.89 million people, and the 35-39 year age group with 16.78 million people. The work force in the 15-19 year age group is among the least, namely only 5.98 million people. The workforce aged 60 years and over reached 16.26 million people.


From all the discussion above, it can be concluded that those who are not in the labor force are groups that are no longer in the labor force, such as residents who are already at a productive age, but have not worked or even do not want to work. For example: retirees who are under 65 years of age include women who choose to be housewives, young people who are still studying at university, and many more.

The work force or are residents who are still at productive age and already have a job or are in the process of looking for work. Examples are graduates who are in the process of looking for work, company employees who are already working and earning, and so on.

Related Books

Designing an Outsourcing Work Agreement

These activities may take the form of, among other things, cleaning service businesses, providing food for company employees, security personnel businesses, supporting service businesses in mining and petroleum, or labor supply businesses and so on. This book provides guidance to providers (vendors) and users of work services (users) to design work agreements to be outsourced, design Service Level Agreements (SLA), or design Specific Time Work Agreements (PKWT), and others. This book is also equipped with a special chapter which contains examples of work agreements in question.

Human Resources + Work Productivity

The rapidly growing business world requires qualified and professional human resources, so today the need for capable human resources is felt. One form of improving and developing the quality/capability of human resources in question is through education and training in a broad sense. The ability of employees as human resources in an organization is very important meaning and existence for increasing work productivity in the organizational environment.

As sophisticated as the facilities and infrastructure owned by the organization, without the support of qualified human resources, it can be assumed that the organization will find it difficult to progress and develop. In essence, the development of human resources is in the context of increasing capabilities so that higher productivity can be achieved.

Through education and training, an employee is prepared to have the provision to be ready to know, be able to recognize and develop methods of thinking systematically, so that they can easily solve problems and make decisions. This will later be seen in its performance, which will ultimately guarantee work productivity which is expected to increase.

The Golden Bridge of the Indonesian Labor Force

This demographic bonus can also become a new burden for Indonesia. Solutions must be determined immediately or Indonesia will face impacts that endanger economic and social stability. The government must be able to become an agent of development by improving the quality of human resources. Indonesia must start from the realm of education, both formal and informal, as well as the ability to master technology.

Labor Reproductive Health

Chapter 1. Basic Concepts of Labor Reproductive Health Problems
Chapter 2. Reproductive Health Protection for Women Workers
Chapter 3. Menstrual Cycle Disorders for Workers
Chapter 4. Pregnancy Disorders Due to Work
Chapter 5. Women Workers Continue to Exclusively Breastfeed
Chapter 6. Anemia in Women Workers
Chapter 7. Abortion among female workers
Chapter 8. Babies with low birth weight

This is information on the workforce , starting from definition, 2 categories of types and figures for the 2022 workforce. I hope this is useful!

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