Definition of Trust: Characteristics, Types and Various Propositions

Definition of Trust – The term trust is a term that is quite familiar among Muslims. Because having the nature of trust is an obligation for a Muslim. Someone who has a trustworthy nature is a person who can be trusted and has responsibility for every task or trust given to him. Therefore, every Muslim is required to have trustworthiness.

The word trust in everyday language can be interpreted as an attitude of responsibility. If someone has responsibility for each task, then he will be seen as a trustworthy person. Vice versa, if he behaves treacherously, then he is considered to be someone who cannot be trusted and cannot be trusted. As a good Muslim, of course Matobers must know the meaning of trust, its characteristics and arguments.

Definition of Trust

Amanah is one of the morals that must exist and be possessed by a Muslim. The nature of trust is even mentioned in certain arguments.

Literally, amanah in language comes from Arabic, namely from the word al-amaanah. The word origin of al-amaanah is al-amnu which means peace of mind and freedom from all fear.

In language, the word trust can be interpreted as something that is entrusted, for example, the use of the word trust in the following sentence, “a deposit is a trust.” From this sentence it can be understood that eating from a mandate is something that is entrusted so that it can be maintained and fulfilled.

The definition of trust in terminology is every obligatory right that is fulfilled and maintained properly.

Definition of Trust According to Experts

In addition to the literal meaning of trust, language and terms, several experts also expressed their opinions on the meaning of trust. Quoted from the advisoryquran page , the following is an explanation.

1. Abdurrahman As-Sa’idi

According to Abdurrahman As-Saidi, trust is everything that is entrusted to someone and is ordered to fulfill it.

2. Abul Baqa’ Al-Kaffawi

It was explained that the word trust has the meaning of everything that is required of every servant. Examples include zakat, prayer, fasting, keeping someone’s deposit, paying debts and keeping secrets.

3. Quraish Shihab

According to Quraish Shihab, amanah can be interpreted as a trust given to someone to be carried out properly and maintained as well as possible. In the process of maintaining the trust, the person receiving the trust must also avoid any possibility that one day he will waste the trust, either intentionally or unintentionally.

From the several meanings of trust that have been explained previously, it can be concluded that trust is the nature of someone who is able to maintain in the best possible way the trust that has been given by other people to that person, so that the person who is given the mandate can be trusted by other people and the existing community. surrounding.

Characteristics and Types of Trust

Someone who has a trustworthy character can be identified by the characteristics he has. Some of the characteristics of a person who is trustworthy are being responsible, honest, keeping their promises, firm and often entrusted with carrying out an unusual task.

After knowing the characteristics of a person who is trustworthy, Matobers also needs to know the types of trustworthiness. In general, the nature of trust can be classified into three, namely trust in God, the creator, trust in fellow human beings, trust in oneself. Here’s an explanation.

1. Trust in Allah the Creator

The first type of trust is trust to the creator, namely Allah. Because humans are creatures created by their creator. The form of trust that humans have in God or the creator is to carry out all things that are ordered by God and leave everything that is forbidden by God.

This command is also explained in the word of Allah in QS. Al-Anfal verse 27, following the sound of the verse and its meaning.

Meaning: O you who believe, do not betray Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad) and also do not betray the trust that has been entrusted to you, while you know it.

From this verse, a Muslim knows that the consequence of seeking strength in creatures other than Allah or known as shirk is the most severe reward. So that Muslims are prohibited from committing shirk and denying or abusing the trust given.

2. Trust to fellow human beings

The second type of trust is trust in fellow human beings or other individuals as fellow creatures. This second type of trust is a type of trust that occurs quite often.

The form of trust in fellow human beings can be in the form of rights or obligations that are owned by every human being. An example is not telling other people when told a secret. Besides that, there are also other examples such as conveying something according to the original truth and not making it up, subtracting or adding to it.

This is in accordance with the word of Allah in QS. An Nisa verse 58, the following reads.

Usually a value said or done that is entrusted or not entrusted can be of value or not at all for the person who is given the mandate.

However, it is also very possible that simple actions or words have a very significant impact on the recipient of the mandate. For this reason, Allah gave orders to mankind through His word so that every Muslim person conveys the mandate to those who should receive the mandate.

3. Trust Yourself

The last type of trust is trust in yourself. This type of trust is a type of trust that many people rarely realize.

In Islam, every human being is a leader, so that the mandate to oneself must be carried out properly. An example of trusting yourself is maintaining a healthy body and mind, not allowing yourself to get sick or injured because of anything in various aspects. Because, everything that exists on this earth is only a deposit from Allah alone.

Proof of Trust

It has been explained previously, that the nature of trust must be possessed by every Muslim. According to Shaykh Abdurrahman As-Sa’idi said that trust is anything that is entrusted to someone and ordered to be fulfilled immediately.

Allah gives orders to His servants to fulfill the mandate perfectly and in full, not reduced, not postponed and not cheated. In the word of Allah in the letter An-Nisa verse 58, it is also explained that trust is power, secrets, assets and delegations or secrets that are not known except by Allah SWT.

In fact, the fiqh experts have even stated that anyone who is given a mandate, then that person has an obligation to maintain the trust in a solid place.

The fiqh experts also revealed that it is impossible to fulfill the mandate if it is not maintained, so maintaining the mandate is mandatory.

Trust cannot be carried out other than by experts or people who are entitled to receive the mandate and representatives of that person in their position. So that if the person surrenders the trust other than the person entitled to receive it, then he is not said to have fulfilled the trust.

There are several arguments that explain trust, including the following.

1. QS Al-Baqarah: 238

If you are on a trip and don’t pay in cash, while you don’t get a writer, then the person who has the debt should have a dependent object.

However, if a part of you trusts some of the others, then that person who is trusted fulfills the trust (debt) and should fear Allah, his Lord and you (witnesses) should not conceal his testimony.

And whoever hides it, then verily he is someone who is sinful in heart and Allah is Aware of what you do.

2. QS. Al-Ahzab: 72-73

Verily, We have put forward the trust in the heavens, the earth and the mountains, so they are all reluctant to carry the trust and they are afraid that they will betray it and the people will take the trust. Verily, human beings are very unjust and act very stupid.

So that Allah gives punishment to hypocrites, men and women and polytheists men and women and so that Allah accepts repentance from believing men and women and is Allah Most Forgiving and Most Merciful.

In the word of Allah in the Al-Ahzab letter, Allah says about trust in His Creatures. Allah has given a mandate to the mukallaf, namely people who obey His commands and are willing to stay away from all that Allah has forbidden both when they are alone or when they are in public.

Allah SWT has made an offer of trust to great creatures such as the earth, the sky to the mountains voluntarily and not forced. However, God’s creatures, the heavens, the earth and the mountains refused to carry out this mandate.

Because they feel worried if they are not able to carry out the mandate. They all refused the offer not because they were disobedient to Allah, not because they did not want the reward that would be rewarded.

So Allah offers this trust to humans, with conditions as described in the heavens, earth and mountains. Then humans also accept the offer of trust, even though humans are unjust and stupid and humans also carry a very heavy burden.

Even though the human body is smaller than the other three creatures of God, humans dare to accept the mandate because humans have potential.

But because in a human being there are ambitions and desires that often make people deceive and close their eyes, Allah gives a very tyrannical and stupid nature due to a lack of thought about the consequences of accepting this trustworthy offer.

3. Q.S. Al-Mu’minun: 8

And those who maintain the trust that he bears and his promises.

The meaning of the word of God in letter Al-Mu’minun verse 8 is that they pay attention to, guard and try to carry out and fulfill their mandate. And this first verse covers all trust, be it trust between a servant and his Lord, for example, such as hidden worship that is unknown except to Allah and trust between a servant and creatures, for example, matters such as entrusted treasures and secret matters.

4. HR. Abu Dawud: 3535

This one hadith is a hadith that contains to fulfill the mandate and not betray. Here’s the hadith.

5. HR. Bukhari: 33

The next hadith is a hadith which explains that betrayal is one of the characteristics of hypocrisy. Here’s the hadith.

6. HR. Bukhari: 59

The next hadith is a hadith which explains that the lifting of the mandate is one of the signs of the apocalypse. Here’s the hadith.

While some people say, “He listened to what was said, but he did not like what he said.” and some say, “That he did not hear what he said.”

Until the Prophet SAW finished the conversation by saying, “Where is the person who asked about the Day of Judgment earlier?”

The person said, “I am O Messenger of Allah” so he also said, “if the trust has been lost, then wait for the doomsday.” then the person asked again, “how did the trust go away?” then the Apostle replied, “if the affairs are left to non-experts, then wait for the end to happen.”

That is an explanation of the meaning of trust and its characteristics and arguments. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful and also adds to your insight. Matobers can learn about the characteristics that are required of Muslims and their arguments by reading books.