Definition of Village: Cooperation, Functions, and Characteristics of Village Communities

When talking about territory, it cannot be separated from the names of cities and villages. Then, do you know about the village? If not, in this article, we will discuss more about villages.

Definition of Village

The village is an agglomeration of settlements in rural areas (rural). Meanwhile, in Indonesia itself, the term village refers to the division of administrative areas under sub-districts which are led by a village head. A village is a collection of several small residential units called kampung or dusun or banjar or jorong.

The word village is etymologically derived from Sanskrit, deca is the homeland, birthplace or land of origin. Geographically, a village or village is defined as “a group of houses or shops in a country area, smaller than a town” . The village as a legal community unit has the authority to manage its own household based on rights, origins and customs that are recognized in the National Government and are located in the Regency area.

The village is a legal community unit that has the authority to manage and regulate the interests of the local community based on local origins and customs within the national government system and is located in the district area.

In addition, the village can also be referred to as a result of a combination of the activities of a group of people and their environment who work together. The result of this combination is a form or appearance on earth caused by physiographic, social, economic, political and cultural elements that interact with each other and maintain relations with other regions.

Definition of Village According to Experts

In addition to the general understanding of the village, several experts also revealed the meaning of the village. Below will be explained the meaning of the village according to experts.

Sutardjo Kartohadikusomo

The village is a legal entity that contains a group of people to hold their own government.

Paul H. Landis

A village is an area where social relations are characterized by high intensity and a population of less than 2,5000 people.

HAW Widjaja

The village is a community unit that has a structure based on special characteristics. Within the village government contains participation, diversity, genuine autonomy, democratization and community empowerment.

 N. Daldjoeni 

In general, a village can be referred to as a community settlement that is located outside the city and its inhabitants have a livelihood as farming or farming.

Village Cooperation

It is well known by many people that when living in this world, there are some things that cannot be done alone. In other words, must be done together with other people. Likewise with activities in the village community where in building something, the help of others is needed. So, one of the keys to the success of village communities is to work together.

There are three main elements that are always attached to a cooperation framework, namely the elements of two or more parties, the elements of interaction and the elements of the purpose of cooperation. If one of these three elements is not included in an object that is mutually agreed upon, then it can be assumed that there is no cooperation in that object.

In detail, the aspects that must exist in cooperation are as follows:

  1. Two or more people/institutions/villages, meaning that cooperation will exist if at least two parties make an agreement. Therefore, the success or failure of this cooperation is determined by the roles of the two or more parties who work together.
  2. Activity, is cooperation that occurs because of activities carried out together, as a means to achieve the goals that have been planned.
  3. Goals/targets, which are aspects that are the target of the business cooperation, are usually benefits both financial and non-financial that are felt or received by both parties.
  4. Certain period of time, that the cooperation is limited by time. Therefore, there is an agreement between the two parties when the cooperation will end. This is of course if the goal has been achieved.

In principle, in cooperation, inter-regional competition that may occur must not override higher interests, namely inter-regional, national and sustainable development interests. Regional interests should not lead to unhealthy competition between a region and its neighbors. Law No. 6 of 2014 Paragraph 92 states that:

1. Cooperation between Villages includes:

  • Development of joint ventures owned by the Village to achieve competitive economic value.
  • Community activities, services, development and community empowerment between villages.
  • The field of security and order.

2. Cooperation between Villages is set forth in a Joint Village Head Regulation through an inter-Village deliberation agreement.

3. Through a Joint Village Head Regulation, inter-village cooperation can be carried out.

4. Inter-Village meetings that discuss the following matters:

  • Formation of inter-village institutions
  • There is a local government program that is implemented through cooperation between villages.
  • Planning, implementation and monitoring of inter-Village development programs.
  • Budget allocation for Development
  • Input on the Regional Government program where the Village is located.
  • Other activities are carried out through cooperation between villages with all the participation of the village community.

5. In carrying out inter-Village development, inter-Village cooperation bodies may form groups/institutions according to need.

6. In inter-Village business services, a Village-owned Enterprise can be formed which belongs to 2 (two) Villages or more. 

In managing the financial administration of the village government, it should not be done simultaneously. 

Village Cooperation Objectives

Inter-village cooperation as an option to accelerate economic growth and self-reliance through a joint management mechanism based on mutually beneficial and fair principles. Thus, the existence of village cooperation must be able to answer and realize village development goals. The objectives of village cooperation are:

1. Manage, protect and preserve village assets and the results of village cooperation

Available village assets such as water sources, land, markets, financial institutions that have not been used optimally.

So, with this cooperation, it will generate business capital and provide benefits to the village community. In addition, the increase in the village economy has also increased.

2. There is an increase in environmental management and increased business preservation

In an area, the village has a wealth of potential environmental resources and has not been managed optimally. Village forests, springs, coasts and beaches that stretch between villages will find it difficult to achieve economic scale if they are managed partially.

3. Improving the management of superior potential

So far, the superior potential has been carried out traditionally, so it has not reached the planned economies of scale. On the other hand, limited business capital, production equipment and technology are still problems faced by rural communities. .

4. Linkages between regions

With cooperation, it will reduce the regional ego so that in the future, cooperation between villages or village government as an interest that cannot be overlooked.

5. Improving the quality of public services

Village cooperation based on the principles of cooperation can create good service. Demands for services in the fields of investment, resource management, financial services and government administration make villages attractive for investment and create competitiveness.

6. Establishing a new economic growth center

The development of economic business activities, improvement of public services as a result of the implementation of village cooperation, will ultimately encourage the realization of villages that work together to become embryos or new growth centers.

Examples of Inter-Village Cooperation

There are several examples of potential activities in inter-village cooperation.

  1. The first example of inter-village cooperation is being able to carry out business development, so that it can improve the economy of the village community.
  2. The second example of cooperation between villages is being able to empower village communities.
  3. Can improve security and order, so that social life can become more secure and peaceful. For example, doing night patrols.
  4. With cooperation between villages, it can improve the quality of education. For example, schools or teaching and learning activities in residents’ homes.
  5. Cooperation between villages in the health sector can be seen from the existence of midwives who provide health services.

Village Functions

The village itself also has a function. Following are some of the functions of the village.

  • The village has a function as a supplier of resources to meet basic needs.
  • The village functions as a city development partner.
  • Rural communities function as a source of labor in urban areas

In addition to the functions above, there are other functions as follows:

  • The village in terms of work activities, the village is an agricultural village, a manufacturing village, an industrial village, a fishing village and so on.

Village Physical and Non-Physical Potential

Village Physical Potential

The physical potential of the village includes among others:

  1. Land, in the sense of added and mineral resources, plant sources which are sources of livelihood and livelihood.
  2. Water, in the sense of water sources, the condition or quality of water and its water management for irrigation, agriculture and daily needs.
  3. For an agrarian village, climate plays a very important role.
  4. The role of livestock as a source of food and energy in the village.
  5. Humans, as productive forces to manage natural resources in the village.

Village Non-Physical Potential

For the non-physical potential of the village as follows:

  1. The village community lives based on mutual cooperation and is a productive force, building power on the basis of cooperation and mutual understanding.
  2. Social institutions, education and village social organizations that provide social assistance and guidance in a positive sense.
  3. The source of the smooth running of the village and the orderly administration of the village depends on the elected village apparatus or pamong.

Characteristics of Village Communities

The following are the characteristics of rural communities that you need to know.

  1. In order to pursue individual needs, there is a more thorough division of time.
  2. Have a high sense of togetherness, because villagers tend to help each other.
  3. The division of labor between villagers tends to be diffuse and has no clear boundaries.
  4. Villagers tend to do the work of former family members.
  5. In the village, religious life is stronger than life in the city.
  6. Social changes tend to occur more slowly, depending on the openness of the village community to accept influences that are quite different from local customs.
  7. Creativity and innovation tend not to be implemented if the villagers do not find out the latest information about the times and technology.
  8. Most interactions are carried out because of shared interests rather than personal interests.

From all the discussion above it can be said that the village is an area related to urban areas. Apart from that, it is only natural that villages must cooperate with each other in order to improve the economy, health and education. That way, the life of the village community can become more prosperous.

So, that’s the meaning of the village and the function of the village. Hopefully all the discussion above is useful and can add to your insight.