Understanding Demographics: Purpose, Data Types, and Measurements

Understanding Demographics – Demographics are writings about the people or human population. Demography is also known as population science, namely the study of the dynamics of the human population.

Demography comes from a combination of Greek words, namely demos means people or inhabitants, while graphein means writing or notes. Demography studies population, the main thing is studying about fertility or birth, mortality or death and mobility.

In addition, demographics also include population size, mortality and aging, geographic distribution, composition of the population, geographic characteristics and how these factors may change.

Demography also focuses on studying population problems quantitatively, such as the number, structure, composition, and size of the population so that population data calculation techniques are used. Demographics are needed to get good results and quality calculations.

Demographics also offer valuable insights into how the population is organized, its size and composition. Apart from that, demographics can also play a role in the economy. Besides that, demography is also built by the government to share resources, arrange constituencies, plan policy initiatives, and so on.

In addition, demography can also be used to develop causal relationships between population development and various social, economic and cultural aspects. In addition, demography explains past growth and predicts future population growth. Demographics can also be used to study the quantity and distribution of the population in a particular area.

For more details, the following is the definition of demography according to some experts regarding demography as follows:

1. Johan Sussmilch (1762)

Johan Sussmilch is known as the father of German demography. Johan Sussmilch is also a German Protestant minister, as well as a statistician and demographer.

Johan Sussmilch argues that demography is a science that studies divine law or God’s law, in the changes that occur in human life. These changes can be seen from birth, death and growth.

2. Achille Guillard (1855)

The term demography was used by Achille Guillard for the first time in an essay entitled Elements de Statistique Humaine, ou Demographie Comparee or Elements of Human Statistics or Comparative Demography.

Achille Guillard argues that demography is a science that studies everything from human circumstances and attitudes that cannot be measured. This includes changes in general, human physical nature, civilization, intellectual and moral conditions.

3. George W. Barclay (1970)

George W. Barclay argues that demography is a science that provides an interesting picture of the population that is described statistically. In addition, demography also studies overall behavior, not just individual behavior.

4. Phillip M. Hauser and Dudley Duncan

According to these two experts, demography is a science that studies the number, territorial distribution and composition of the population, and studies changes and the causes of these changes.

5. David V. Glass (1953)

Meanwhile, David V. Glass argues that demography is a science that is generally very limited. To study a population that is influenced by demographic processes, namely fertility, mortality and also migration.

6. Donald J. Boague (1973)

He also argues that demography is a science that studies statistics and mathematics about the size, composition and distribution of the population. In addition, demography also studies about the occurrence of changes in humans.

Basically demography is the science that focuses on population statistics, mathematical and statistical calculations of population data, changes in the number, distribution and composition of the results of fertility, mortality and migration events, resulting in conditions and composition of the population according to age and sex that can be used for various policies in human resource development.


Demographic Scope

Methorst and Skirt argue that population problems can be divided into two, namely: 1) quantitative problems using mathematical analysis and calculations, 2) qualitative problems that discuss genetic and biological populations.

Adolphe Laundry proved mathematically that there is a relationship between demographic elements, births, deaths, gender, age and so on. In addition, it is necessary to have knowledge that is used to analyze knowledge:

1. Pure Demography or Pure Demography

Pure demography relates to the size of the population distribution or the composition of changes and population growth which results in techniques for calculating population data and also obtaining estimates of the state of the population in the future or in the past.

2. Population Studies or Sociological Demography, Population Studies, Demographic Sociology.

This study examines the ethnic, social and economic characteristics of the community. Ethnic characteristics include race, nationality, accent. Characteristics include the way of marriage, kinship status, birth, education and so forth. In addition, the nature of the economy includes economic activity, employment status, business field, income and so on.

Population dynamics result from changes in the number, distribution and composition as a result of fertility, mortality and migration events, the behavior of the population as a group, not individuals, changes in the population presented in the form of statistical data.

Demographic Objectives

Residents are a group of people who live in a certain area. Meanwhile, in the law, residents are people in terms of individuals, family members, community members, citizens and a set of quantities residing in a place within the boundaries of the state at a certain time.

Population as a science is information or the provision of a comprehensive information about a cause and effect. Besides that, it is also useful for solving a problem from the emergence of demographic phenomena.

Demographics also have the main variables that most influence changes in population composition such as age, number, distribution and sex. Here are the variables:

  • Birth (fertility or birth)
  • Death (death or mortality)
  • Migration (move)

Demographics is statistical data about the population, which includes age, gender, and race. Demographics also have specific goals, such as:

  • Develop causal relationships between population development and various aspects of social organization
  • Describe past growth
  • Its reduction and distribution as well as possible and with the available data
  • Studying the quantity and distribution of population in a certain area
  • Trying to predict future population growth and its possible consequences.
  • Obtain quality human resources with the desired aspect criteria in order to achieve the initial goals.
  • Provide information on market opportunities for businesses so that they can attract investors.
  • Provide information about population data
  • Become the initiator of economic, education, health and other policies.

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Types of Demographic Data

In general, demographic data reveals the social and economic characteristics of a population. This can include:

  • Population size, is the number of sample items taken
  • Population density is the number of residents in a certain area
  • age or age since birth
  • Gender, biological differences between men and women
  • Entity, something that is unique and different, not only physically related.
  • Level of education
  • Marital status,
  • The birth rate or Crude Birth Rate ( CBR) of a population is the number of births per 1,000 people each year.
  • The death rate or mortality rate is a measure of the average death of the population in a certain area
  • Revenue is the result of selling goods or services.

Demographic Basic Measures

1. Demographics – Rate

Rate is a number that shows a certain event or disease, in a certain time population. Rate can also be a comparison between events and the number of people who are at risk of these events. Rate is used to express the speed of events and certain dynamics in society. Examples of rates are the mortality rate, morbidity rate and narality rate.

2. Demographics – Ratio (Ratio)

The ratio is a comparison between the numerator and denominator at a time, or as a comparison between two independent numbers that are used to express the magnitude of an event. An example of a ratio, namely, the sex ratio is the ratio of the total male and female population in a certain area.

3. Demographics – Proportions

Proportion is the comparison value between the quantifier or numerator and the denominator or denominator. The quantifier includes the denominator, the unit is %.

Proportion = X x 100

4. Demographics – Average

The average value is a measure of the median value obtained from the sum of all existing observation values, then divided by the number of existing observations.

5. Demographics – Frequency

Frequency is a measure that states how many activities an activity is carried out in a certain period of time.

6. Demographics – Scope

Coverage is a measure that assesses the magnitude of an achievement from the implementation of previously determined activity targets within a specified time period.

7. Demographics – Number

The size of a number is often used in demographic analysis.

8. Demographics – Constants

Constants are fixed numbers. Example 100,000 or 10,000. In the formula it is stated with “k”. If “k” is multiplied by a ratio, number, or proportion, you get a clearer result.

9. Demographics – Cohort

A cohort is a group of people who have lived through a demographic event together. An example of a birth cohort is a group of people born in the same year. A cohort measure used to quantify a demographic event in a particular cohort.

Indonesian Demographics

Demographics in Indonesia includes population statistics in Indonesia. As well as the number, distribution, population density, and other demographic data. The population in Indonesia based on the population census in 2020 is 270.2 million people. Compared to the 2010 population census, the number increased to 237.64 million people. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world.

1. The population in Indonesia is always increasing. The Indonesian population is experiencing several major problems, such as:

  • Unequal distribution of population. The densest population is in Java, while the sparsely populated are in Maluku and also Papua.
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  • Widened population pyramid. The grouping of children and adolescents is also still very large.
  • The work force is also very large. However, the development of employment opportunities is still minimal and unavailable compared to the number of additions to the labor force each year.
  • Economic activity is still uneven. Still concentrated in Jakarta and big cities in Java.
  • Infrastructure development is still lagging behind.
  • The health index is still low. Maternal and infant mortality rates are still high.

2. The ratio of male to female sexes in Indonesia is increasing from one population census to the next.

3. Indonesia has hundreds of ethnic groups, namely more than 300 ethnic groups scattered in every region of Indonesia

4. Indonesia recognizes six official religions. According to data from the Ministry of Religion for 2018, Indonesia’s population is 86.7% Muslim, Catholic Christian 1.74%, Protestant Christian 7.6%, Hindu 0.77%, Buddhist 0.77%, Confucianist 0.03%.

5. The national language of the Indonesian population is Indonesian. In addition, Indonesians also have or use their respective regional languages ​​as a second language after the national language.

6. Indonesian residents aged seven to fifteen are attending education. Based on SP2010, the percentage of the population of seven to fifteen years who have not or are not in school is 2.51% and who is no longer in school is 6.04%.

Demographics in Economics

Demographics can play an influential role in economic health. Demographics in an economic perspective is also referred to as lifestyle, in which lifestyle includes how a person carries out what is a concept of himself. The definition of demographics shows that the concept of consumer lifestyle is slightly different from their original personality.

There is an easy way to calculate economic growth, namely by using gross domestic product. So GDP can measure the total value of goods and services produced in a country during a certain period of time. Usually for the calculation of one year. When comparing the year-to-year change in GDP (adjusted for inflation), one can see whether the economy is growing, staying the same or shrinking.

Demographics in the United States have shifted, in the last Century. Families are getting smaller, while life spans are getting longer. As a result of this, the population in the country is aging. This factor is the main reason GDP growth has stagnated in the United States over the past few decades.

There are three main reasons why an aging population can slow GDP growth:

  1. First, there are fewer people of working age to provide enough labour, create goods for sale, and provide sufficient services.
  2. Lower population growth can lead to higher taxes. If the government wants to maintain the same level of tax revenue from fewer people, then everyone has to pay more taxes. This means that there is less money left to buy goods and services, and therefore lower demand.
  3. Furthermore, older people are known to save and borrow more, meaning that less money is used for investment growth.

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Demographic Studies

After knowing the meaning of demography, we also need to understand demographic studies which cover various things. Demography itself emphasizes the following studies:

a. Number or size of population, composition, distribution of population in an area.
b. Changes that occur in population size, distribution, and composition.
c. any component of the discussion.
d. Factors that influence changes in these components.
e. The consequences of changes in the amount, composition, and distribution of these components.

Demographic Variables

There are many variables related to demographics, but usually the ones used are as follows:

1. Fertility or birth
2. Mortality or death
3. Migration or migration
4. Gender
5. Total population
6. Age
7. Religion
8. Income
9. Occupation

Demographics Component

In general, there are several demographic components that we can use to describe the social dynamics that exist in an area. The following is a full explanation:

1. Birth Rate or Fertility

This birth rate includes all the number of live births. However, it is not uncommon for the birth rate or fertility to be measured by the number of children from each pair in an area.

2. Mortality Rate or Mortality

The death rate in an area certainly varies, depending on the factors that can influence it. However, not all deaths are recorded in demographics, for example, miscarriages. Through this death rate, it can be known about the level of welfare and health of the population in a region.

3. Marital Status

The number or number of marriages is one of the factors that can affect the birth rate and also changes in the population in a region. That means, the greater the number of marriages in an area, then it will also have an impact on increasing the birth rate or fertility.

4. Social Mobility

Social mobility is a change or shift in the position of one’s social status in social society. Changes in social status can occur vertically or horizontally. For example, an unemployed man begins to turn into a successful entrepreneur because of his hard work.

5. Migration

Migration is the movement of people from one area to another, either staying for a long period of time or staying temporarily. Migration activities can be divided into two types, namely:

a. International Migration: This is the movement of people from one country to another, usually this type of migration is called immigration or emigration.
b. National Migration: This is the movement of people from one area to another within a country. Usually this type of migration is called transmigration or urbanization.

6. Level of Education

Residents in each region certainly have different levels of education. The existence of different levels of education can lead to differences in terms of needs and also the consumption of various goods or products needed to support educational needs. For example, an area with a population of mostly students, they will certainly need a laptop. Meanwhile, in other areas where students are rare, they don’t really need these facilities.

7. Jobs

The type of work that exists in one area is not always the same as in other areas. For example, the types of jobs in big cities are usually the majority of people working as employees in offices or companies. Meanwhile, for the type of work that exists in rural areas, generally the majority of people work as farmers.

8. Total Income

The total income of the people in each region can be influenced by many things. One of them is the type of work they do. This is a form of variable that we can find out through demographic analysis.

9. Religion

Through demography, we can find out what religions are believed by residents in a certain area.

10. Gender

Demographic analysis can also explain the ratio of the number of residents in an area based on gender.

11. Ethnicity

Residents in an area usually come from several different tribes and ethnicities. Data from demographic analysis can explain ethnicity or tribes in a community in an area. For example, in the capital city of Jakarta, most of the population comes from Javanese, Chinese, Batak, Padang, Sundanese, Betawi, Ambonese, and others.

Demographic Objectives

Basically, the purpose of demography is to find out information about the population, composition, organization, and distribution of the population in an area. In addition, demography can also help us study population growth trends that describe past evolution, present population distribution, and changes in the population of an area in the future. Here are some demographic goals that you need to understand:

a. To explain the development of the population in an area, whether it’s the growth that has occurred in the past, the level of development, the level of distribution, and so on.
b. In order to be able to learn about the level of quantity and distribution of population in a particular area.
c. In order to be able to predict the rate of population growth in a region in the future and its various possible consequences.
d. In order to be able to find the relationship between causes and effects of population growth and aspects of social organization that exist in society.

Demographic Benefits

One of the important demographic benefits is that it can help us understand the social and economic problems that exist in an area. Not only that, demographics are also useful for identifying the best solution to the problem at hand. In practice, demographers are involved in a process of social planning, labor market analysis, market research, economic development, and others. In accordance with the objectives previously explained, demographics certainly provide several benefits for many parties. The following are demographic benefits that you need to understand:

a. Assisting the government in evaluating development performance by taking into account the composition of the population in the past and present as well as the various factors that influence it.
b. Assist the government in making development plans in various fields. Whether it’s health, education, agriculture, and others.
c. Provide information about the level of economic development that exists in a region or country by looking at the number of people working, the number of jobs available, and so on.
d. Provides information about the level of welfare and also the average life expectancy of the population in a region or country.

Demographic Aspect Factors in Marketing

There is a relationship between demographics and marketing is about the profile of the target market. Demographic data can be used as a first step in a business to market goods and services. In addition, demographic data is statistical information about gender, income, and age which are then used by business owners to identify targets for their own companies. With demographic data, it will be easier for companies to determine their target market in an effective and efficient way. The company really hopes that the government can provide more complete data regarding residents.

Relationship Between Demographics and Market Segmentation

The relationship between demographics and market segmentation is indeed very closely related to the needs of the people that lead to the company’s product and service offerings. Market segmentation, strong goals or targets, and market placement are closely related to demographics. This is because market segmentation must be able to see the demographics of the population or community to determine their marketing targets. If the company wants to be successful and successful in marketing, then the company must be able to analyze the demographics of the surrounding population. We have discussed the variables used for market segmentation above, namely gender, age, income, occupation, and education.

Benefits of Market Segmentation

Having understood the relationship between demographics and market segmentation, we now turn to understanding the benefits of implementing both:

a. When implementing market segmentation, we can divide the market into several groups that have variables such as occupation, age, religion, education, gender, number of families, income, family life cycle, and nationality.
b. The application of market segmentation can help us improve our location strategy, including marketing resources, managing market segmentation, market relations, setting market targets, and determining population positioning.
c. Companies can predict from now on even in the future regarding market trends that are always changing.
d. Application of good and correct product designs as well as user friendly and in accordance with market segmentation.
e. The application of market segmentation can be used as a measurement of promotional efforts in accordance with the period when the market reaction is quite enthusiastic.

From the explanation above, we can conclude that demography is a study that studies the human population which includes the composition, distribution, physical, and process of population change in an area. Demography itself can be influenced by several things, including birth and death rates, and population migration. Where these three things will result in stability or change in the human population.