Understanding Threats: Types, and How to Overcome and Examples

Definition of Threats – From the past until now, there have been many events that pose a threat to people’s safety in various countries. Threats certainly become a problem that can unsettle the people of a country. Threat is a business or activity carried out by certain individuals or groups that has the potential to endanger the safety of other individuals or groups.

Another opinion says that a threat is any activity or business, whether carried out abroad or within the country, which is considered to endanger the sovereignty of the state and the territorial integrity of the country as well as the safety of the entire nation and state.

To find out more about threats, you can also identify the types, examples of threats that have occurred, and how to deal with them. The following is a summary of the threats, as reported by Symbianplanet and Maxmanroe , Friday (24/6/2022).

Threat Definition

Threats are any business and activity within the country or abroad which is considered to endanger the sovereignty of the state, the territorial integrity of the state and the safety of the entire nation. According to an expert named Treats, a threat is the occurrence of an important situation that exists in a company or another where it is not profitable.

The purpose of this threat is to change the order of a nation and state that was originally peaceful to be messy and destroyed. This is what causes the need for unity and unity in solving the various threats that occur.


State of World Security

1. Global Security Issues

Global issues, such as strengthening democratic values, upholding human rights, and the environment are still indicators that influence patterns of international relations, especially relations between countries, both on a bilateral and broader scale. These issues are often even used as a measure in building defense cooperation between countries.

The implications of these developments in the global environment present a variety of complex problems that accumulate under conditions of high degree of uncertainty. In the field of defense and security, global development trends affect the characteristics of threats with the emergence of new security issues that require handling with a more comprehensive and integrative approach.

These security issues, among others, are terrorism, cross-border security threats, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The emergence of new security issues is inseparable from globalization, advances in information technology, primordial identity, and the strengthening of the role of non-state actors. For developing countries, new security issues are heavily influenced by the condition of the people, most of whom are still in the category of poor, ignorant and underdeveloped.

In the field of defense administration, the issue of terrorism has several implications. As a real threat, terrorism threatens human life and threatens the honor of the country. As a real threat, terrorism presents uncertainty about when and where acts of terrorism will occur so that it demands the preparedness of national forces to deal with it.

In the perspective of national defense, terrorism is a threat to the safety of the nation so that it becomes part of the duties and functions of national defense. Even though terrorism is a global threat, in the pattern of handling it, each country differs in selecting state instruments to handle it. This often becomes a problem in the preparation of defense policies because of the political and legal sensitivity behind the handling of terrorism, especially in the use of military instruments.

The development and deployment of weapons of mass destruction is also a major global security issue. The development and misuse of mass killing weapons, such as nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, can directly or indirectly threaten world security and become a catastrophe for humanity and the environment.

The existence of a number of countries that have nuclear weapons raises concerns about their abuse which could threaten world peace. On the other hand, the rapid and global progress of science and technology makes it easier for humans to find formulas or ways to proliferate weapons of mass destruction. This facility can also be used by terrorist and separatist groups to develop weapons for mass murder.

The issue of energy security in the last decade has become increasingly prominent and is expected to have an impact on global security in the years to come. The world community’s need for oil and gas energy continues to increase, while its availability is increasingly limited, with political, economic and security implications.

The economic revival in countries that have a major influence on regional security and global security has contributed to the increase in global energy demand. The non-renewable nature of oil and gas energy will gradually become scarcer, while the world’s needs continue to increase.

Such conditions cause the energy crisis in the future to become even more serious and can become a source of conflict between countries. The increasing dependency on energy and the limited resources of oil and gas have resulted in an increase in the price of oil and gas far above a reasonable price. The ever-increasing oil price has resulted in an increase in all basic human needs and has had a significant impact on global economic stability.

For developing countries, including Indonesia, the increase in oil prices has had an impact on economic stability and security, in particular adding to the burden on the state budget and spending. At the community level, the increase in world oil prices has resulted in an increase in the prices of goods and services that are not in balance with people’s purchasing power.

An increase can potentially lead to social upheaval if the increase cannot be managed properly. Limited oil energy resources have prompted fears of the emergence of new competition in various regions triggered by the need to secure mastery of energy sources.

The global security condition is marked by the increasing intensity of asymmetric security threats in the form of cross-border security threats. Acts of piracy, smuggling of weapons and explosives, smuggling of women and children, illegal immigrants, illegal logging, disposal of hazardous and toxic waste (B3), narcotics and illegal drugs (narcotics), human trafficking and fish theft are forms of threats. the most prominent cross-border security measures in the last decade.

The increasing acts of cross-border security threats have influenced the global security and defense policies of major countries which place these issues as common security issues. For Indonesia, cross-border security threats have seriously harmed national interests, so that it is a priority
to deal with, including in cooperation with a number of friendly countries.

2. Regional Security Issues

The end of the Cold War created uncertainty in the Asia Pacific Region, which is closely related to the pattern of relations between countries and their roles and intentions in the future. Regional security issues are still covered by potential conflicts, such as territorial claims and military tensions from that era.

This potential conflict to a certain degree creates a crisis that threatens the stability of regional security and Indonesia. Even though geographically it occurred far from the territory of Indonesia, some of these crises had an impact on Indonesia, both directly and indirectly.

In general, regional security issues that stand out are issues of terrorism, cross-border security threats, and communal conflicts. Meanwhile, on a limited scale, in several countries there are still conflicts between countries based on territorial claims.

One of the regional security issues that is still surfacing is interstate conflict related to territorial claims. Issues that stand out include the dispute over the Kashmir region between India and Pakistan, the problem on the Korean Peninsula, the conflict between Lebanon and Israel, the Israeli-Palestinian peace issue, and the China-Taiwan issue.

In Southeast Asia and beyond, overlapping border claims in the South China Sea area are not too prominent at this time. However, this claim remains a potential conflict that may involve several countries. Apart from the potential for inter-state conflict, another prominent issue is domestic conflict with vertical and horizontal dimensions, which are still occurring in several countries in the Southeast Asian region.

Transnational security threats, such as terrorism, armed piracy, illegal fishing, are regional security issues that are currently surfacing. Apart from that, there are also internal conflicts based on SARA, separatism and anarchist radicalism in several countries in the region and its surroundings.

Indonesia is in an area where the condition is relatively experiencing security issues as mentioned above. It is impossible for Indonesia to live peacefully in a conflict-affected area because it can be affected by the wastes of conflict, such as waves of refugees, illegal arms trafficking, and illegal border crossings.

Maritime security is one of the prominent regional security issues that has received attention in the XXI Century. The prominence of this issue is related to the function of the maritime area which is increasingly strategic in the interests of countries in the world which encourage efforts to increase its security.

The maritime area is still the main artery of global economic interaction so that maritime security is a crucial issue for many countries in the world. In the Southeast Asia Region, the Malacca Straits area remains the focus of the international community because of world trade transportation traffic through these waters. The strategic position of the Malacca Straits has encouraged the desire of major power countries to take a direct role in securing the Malacca Straits.

For Indonesia, the direct security of the Malacca Strait is a sovereign right for Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. However, Indonesia recognizes the interests of other users and participates in indirect safeguards in the form of capacity building such as education, training and various information.

Indonesia as an archipelagic country located between the continents of Asia and Australia as well as the Indian and Pacific Oceans, on the one hand has a strategic position as well as a big challenge in securing it. In accordance with the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Indonesia has three ALKI (Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Channels) and several strategic choke points for global interests, such as in the Sunda Strait, Lombok Strait and Makassar Strait. Securing ALKI and all of these choke points is a strategic agenda for Indonesia’s national interests and the international community.

Various political dynamics and changes that developed in the Reformation era experienced many changes and tended to lead to conditions of increasing uncertainty. Democracy that has developed as widely as possible has not been followed by the knowledge, readiness and maturity of the people in implementing these democratic values. The nuances of freedom marked by political taps that are increasingly wide open tend to develop towards unlimited freedom.

Types of Threats

In general, threats can be divided into two types, namely military threats and non-military threats.

1. Military Threats

Military threats are threats that use armed force and are carried out in an organized manner. This threat is considered to have the ability to endanger state sovereignty, the safety of the entire nation and territorial integrity.

Some of which include military threats, including:

  • Military aggression by other countries.
  • Infringement of territory by other countries.
  • Espionage.
  • Sabotage.
  • Acts of armed terror.
  • separatist movement.
  • Armed rebellion.
  • Civil War.
  • treason movement.

2. Non-Military Threats

Non-military threats are types of threats that have different characteristics from types of military threats in that there are no physical characteristics and forms that are not visible to the naked eye. Even so, non-military threats are no less dangerous, and could even be more dangerous than military threats.

Some of which are included in this type of threat include:

  • Ideology.
  • Political.
  • Economy.
  • Socio-cultural.
  • Technology.
  • Information.
  • Public safety.

Threat Target

  • Country.
  • Nation.
  • Government.
  • Public.
  • Individual.
  • Region.

Threat Interests

1. Country

  • State sovereignty and independence.
  • Territory integrity.

2. Nations

  • National unity.
  • The noble values ​​of the nation.

3. Government

  • Government policies and actions.
  • Government legitimacy.

4. Individuals

  • Safety of self and family.
  • Wealth.

5. Article 29 UU ITE

“Everyone intentionally and without right sends electronic information and/or electronic documents that contain threats of violence or intimidation directed personally.”

6. Article 45 paragraph (3) of the ITE Law

“Anyone who fulfills the elements referred to in Article 29 shall be punished with imprisonment for a maximum of 12 (twelve) years and/or a fine of up to Rp. 2,000,000,000.00 (two billion rupiahs).


Examples of Threats that Have Occurred

The following are examples of threats that have occurred, both military and non-military types.

1. Existing Threats in the Community Environment

  • The high rate of poverty and unemployment has the potential to increase crime in certain areas in Indonesia.
  • Infrastructure and economic development is not evenly distributed in certain areas, causing social inequality.
  • The consumptive lifestyle is getting higher in the middle to lower economic society which results in a decrease in their welfare.
  • The low level of education among the economically disadvantaged has resulted in the low quality of human resources (HR).
  • Some people are still technologically illiterate, aka clueless, so they cannot keep up with the times and are easily fall for hoaxes.

2. Threat Events that Have Occurred

  • The big case on e-KTP is the cause of corruption being exposed everywhere.
  • In October 2018, there were arrests for illegal fishing violations, namely two fishing boats from Vietnam that were caught in the Natuna Sea.
  • A total of 22 cases of deportation against Filipino citizens totaling 32 people from the Belitung port at Soekarno Hatta Airport.
  • There was a rebellion by the Ratu Adil army in the city of Bandung in January 1950.
  • A foreign espionage agency carried out a cyber attack on United States computer systems in 2008.
  • Malaysian territorial violations against Indonesia located in Ambalat, namely in the Sulawesi Sea on 24 and 25 February 2007. Apart from that, there has also been a case between Indonesia and Timor Leste, namely regarding the Batik Island.
  • International-scale terrorism that has networks between countries, such as ISIS (Islamic State Of Iraq and Syria).
  • The presence of HTI (Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia) which is trusted by the public and the government can threaten the existence of Pancasila as the nation’s way of life.

Examples of Future Threats

  • Simultaneous attack from within and/or supported from outside.
  • Multi-directional attack across national borders.
  • Asymmetric attack.
  • An attack by a small nation and not a state.
  • International terrorist network attacks.
  • Attacks on people’s living systems.

How to Overcome Threats

1. Military Threats

  • Tightening restrictions with other countries.
  • Tackling and overcoming military threats in the country.
  • Train soldiers to be more disciplined in guarding the border area.
  • Increase defense equipment.
  • The community is expected to play an active role in efforts to maintain and care for sovereignty.

2. Non-Military Threats

  • Improve development.
  • Upholding a high tolerance attitude.
  • Improving the quality of human resources (HR).