Dynamos 101: An Introduction to Their Types, Components, and Working Principles

Dynamo: Definition, Functions, Components, Types, Working Principles

In general, a dynamo is a device that is useful for generating electrical energy, from which it was originally in the form of mechanical energy. The use of dynamos in electronic circuits themselves is quite popular. One of them is used in power generators, for example as found in hydropower or PLTU.

Now what is the function of the dynamo, components, types, and how the tool works will be thoroughly discussed in the following article. Don’t miss the full information below.

What Is a Dynamo? A Definition and Explanation

Dynamo is a tool that functions to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. To be able to convert mechanical energy into electricity, this dynamo will later utilize the electromagnetic working principle. Namely from the coil and the magnetic field it has.

By rotating the coil contained in a magnetic field or vice versa, the electronic device will produce induction and also an electromotive force (EMF) . When a coil that has a coil of wire is rotated or moved, a magnetic field will then arise and a voltage will be created in the coil. Then, the generated electrical energy will be used to rotate the dynamo.

The use of dynamos is also very diverse and is used for various types of electronic equipment. For example, such as fans, blenders and electric drills. Not only covers the application in household-scale electronic equipment, dynamos are also part of the power generation equipment in hydropower plants, steam power plants and so on.

What Are the Main Components of a Dynamo? A Detailed Explanation

Dynamo Components

Dynamo is also known as dynamic electric machine. To be able to work, the tool is also supported by various components that compose it. Then what are the parts of the dynamo?

The dynamo parts are :

  1. Rotor.
  2. stator.
  3. brushes.
  4. Bearings.
  5. Main Shaft.
  6. Motor Housings.
  7. Drive Pulleys.

Check out the full review of each part of the dynamo below!

1. Rotors

The rotor is a dynamo component that is wrapped around a copper wire. The rotor is the part whose job is to move and generate rotation. In the rotor, there is a shaft inside which functions to help as the output of the driving force.

The rotor also has components consisting of wire coils, and functions to assist the movement of the tool. The wire coil contained in the rotor has a major influence on the speed that will be generated by the dynamo.

When there are more wire turns, the rotor will have a faster movement. Likewise, if the number of rotor turns is small, the rotor rotation will weaken.

2. Stators

If the rotor is a moving component, then the stator is a stationary component. The rotor is a static part and there is also a wire wound in it. Which wire coil contained in the stator functions to produce a magnetic field. And this magnetic field will be located around the rotor later.

The more turns of wire used, the greater the magnetic field generated and vice versa.

3. Brushes

Furthermore, the dynamo also has a component called brush. The brush part is often referred to as a brush and the material is made of copper wire. Brushes are usually placed at the end of the rotor. Its function itself is to connect the electric current with the rotor.

When the rotor moves, the brush will experience friction. Then the friction that arises will gradually connect the electric current so that then an electric current will be generated because of it.

4. Bearings

Bearings are also known as bearings. The bearing is located between the bearings between the shaft and also the motor housing. Bearings are usually made of materials that have low friction.

This component is useful for maintaining the rotation of the dynamo to avoid obstacles.

5.Main Shaft

Furthermore, there is also a component called the main shaft. Where the main shaft is an object that functions as an axis or axis. This axis is useful for laying various other supporting equipment.

For example in a fan, the propeller must be connected to the dynamo shaft to be able to rotate. Likewise with other electrical tools .

Where the shaft or main shaft will be connected and become the foundation of various equipment. Therefore, the main shaft is usually made with materials that do not rust easily. As well as withstand high rotation and temperature changes.

6. Motor Housings

The motor housing is very thin, made of metal, and functions as the outer protection of the dynamo components.

Aside from being a protector, the motor housing also serves to minimize the dangers posed by the motor. By preventing the rotation of the axis is not too high.

7. Drive Pulleys

With the help of a dynamo, the pulley functions to move the rotation contained in the motor and transfer it to other components.

For example, in a fan, the pulley functions to move the rotation of the dynamo. Go to other components contained in the fan.

From Mechanical Energy to Electrical Power: The Working Principle of Dynamos

To understand more about what is meant by a dynamo, let’s look at the specifics of how a dynamo works first.

The working principle of the dynamo is as follows:

  • To be able to work, the dynamo utilizes a rotating magnetic field contained in a coil. The coil contained in the dynamo has a magnetic field consisting of positive and negative poles.
  • Then, when the coil experiences movement, the two poles will act and induce each other to produce an alternating current. When the magnetic field contained in the coil rotates, it will trigger an electromotive force that produces alternating current (AC current).
  • To be able to convert AC current into DC current . Then you have to replace the ring on the dynamo with the commutator. The ring on the dynamo is useful for producing the desired type of current. If you want to produce direct current, then the component must be fitted with a split ring (commutator).
  • Meanwhile, if you want to produce alternating current, then the split ring must be replaced with a double ring type.

Types of Dynamo Based on Current

Based on the type of current it generates, the dynamo is divided into two types. Both are AC dynamo and DC dynamo. The following is a complete discussion of the two types of dynamos.

1. Dynamo AC

The first type is the AC dynamo. This type is a dynamo that produces alternating current.

On the AC dynamo, there are 2 rings connected to the brush. The two rings attached to the brush rotate 360° to the two magnetic poles in the coil.

As a result, the resulting magnetic induction will have an electromotive force in two different directions. So that the resulting current is a type of alternating current (AC current).

2. DC Dynamo

The next type of dynamo is the DC dynamo. Unlike the AC type, the DC dynamo only has one ring. The split ring contained in the tool is also known as the commutator. Where the commutator is contained in the device, will affect the resulting induced current.

With the commutator, the resulting induced current captures only 180° rotation of the rotor. That way the dynamo output will only produce DC current (direct current).


A dynamo is a device that functions to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The dynamo generates electrical energy from a rotating coil in a magnetic field.

To produce electrical energy, the dynamo utilizes the electromagnetic phenomenon between the coil and the magnetic field so that it can produce electricity from the induction process that occurs.

Because of its working principle, the dynamo is used for various purposes. Among them are used for players in electronic devices such as fans, mixers, electric drills, to use in power plants such as hydropower and so on.

That’s more or less the full discussion about dynamos. Hopefully it’s quite helpful and easy to understand, huh?


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