History of Radiology (X-Rays)

History of Radiology (X-Rays)

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, a physicist at the University of Wurzburg, Germany, first discovered Roentgen rays in 1895 while conducting experiments with cathode rays. At that time he saw the emergence of fluorescence rays emanating from barium platinocyanide crystals in an electrified Crookes-Hittorf tube. He soon realized that this phenomenon was a new discovery so he persistently continued his investigations in the weeks that followed. Not long after, he discovered the rays which he called the new rays or X rays . It was only later that people named the rays Roentgen rays in honor of Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen. Roentgen’s discovery … Read more

What is Venn Diagram ? (Complete Explanation and Examples of Use)

What is Venn Diagram ? (Complete Explanation and Examples of Its Use)

A Venn diagram is an image used to express the relationship between sets in a group of objects that have something in common. Typically, Venn diagrams are used to describe sets that intersect, are independent of each other and so on. This type of diagram is used for scientific and technical data presentation which is useful in the fields of mathematics, statistics and computer applications. In order to understand the Venn diagram, there is a set in it that must be understood first. The Set A set is a clearly defined collection of objects. For example, the clothes you are … Read more

Cell Organelles: Definition, Structure, Function, Various

What is Organelle

In the field of cell biology, organelles are one of several structures with special functions floating in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. In the past, organelles were identified through the use of a microscope, as well as through the use of cell fractionation.   A. UNDERSTANDING THE CELL ORGANEL Cell organelles are solid objects found in the cytoplasm and are living or carrying out the functions of the life of the cell in question. Cell organelles in the cytoplasm have their respective functions which will be discussed in the next point. B. TYPE OF ORGANEL CELLS 1. Based on its … Read more

Structure and Function of Nucleic Acid

nucleic acid function

Nucleic acids are biochemical macromolecules that store and transfer genetic information in cells. They use stored genetic information to direct the synthesis of new proteins in cells. New proteins can be synthesized by ribosomes from DNA and genes held in nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are found on the chromosomes of every living cell. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of every living cell. Nucleic acids are an important part of chromosomes because they hold all the genes that comprise the organism’s DNA. DNA continually directs and maintains the health of organisms and the internal environment by directing the production of … Read more

How to Calculate Margin of Error


Margin of error is a statistic that states the number of errors in random sampling in a survey. Margin of error can also be defined as a distance in a certain confidence interval (statistical) from the survey, this distance represents a statistic. Margin of error measures how close the results of the sample are to the results in reality. In statistic, we calculate the confidence interval to see where the value of the data of sample statistic will fall. The range of values which are below and above the sample statistic in a confidence interval is known as Margin of … Read more

What is Magnetic Stirrer and Its Function?

Working Principle of Magnetic Strrier

Definition and function of magnetic stirrer – In the laboratory, usually a researcher often performs various practicums. Researchers often mix chemical solutions in a beaker for analysis. The substances to be dissolved must be mixed until homogeneous or completely mixed. To get this perfection, a researcher needs a stirrer called a magnetic stirrer . Before using this tool, a researcher needs to understand the meaning and function of the magnetic stirrer in order to use this tool optimally. This tool is used by researchers because to dissolve chemical liquids researchers must be able to stir constantly. This is not possible … Read more