Definition of Aurat, Purpose, Types, Propositions and Limits of Aurat for Men and Women – Every Muslim certainly wants to be a good believer, to be a good Muslim everyone needs to obey the rules that have been ordered by Allah. One of them is the command to cover Muslim and Muslim women’s genitals, there are several boundaries for a Muslim’s genitals to be divided into two types of genitalia, namely male genitalia and female genitalia.
For men, the boundaries of the genitalia start from the navel to the knees, the parts that become the boundaries of this genitalia must be covered, while for women the boundaries of the genitalia start from head to toe. The parts of a woman’s body that must be covered, starting from the head, namely the hair, hands to the ankles and feet. To understand more, the author will discuss the genitalia for Muslim women first.
A. Definition of Aurat
In fiqh, genitalia are parts of the body that cannot be exposed or seen by people who are not muhrim. Meanwhile, according to one of the fiqh scholars, namely Al-Khatib As-Syirbini, it is stated that the genitalia are parts of the body that must be covered and cannot be seen by people who are not muhrim and parts that must be covered when praying.
From the understanding according to scholars and fiqh experts, it can be concluded that the genitalia are parts of a person’s body that cannot be seen when praying and cannot be shown to people who are not their mahram.
B. Purpose of Closing Aurat
The purpose of why someone has to cover their genitals can be studied by Matobers in the book Why Do We Cover Our Aurat? by Malik Al-Mughis who explained the reasons for this to be done.
Covering the genitals is an obligation that must be carried out by every Muslim, besides the obligation to cover the genitals has several other purposes, namely as follows.
1. Looks different from other creatures
This first goal is explained in the Koran, namely in the letter Al-A’raf verse 26 which reads: “O son of Adam, we have sent down for you clothes that are permissible to cover your private parts and for jewelry”. From the Al-A’raf letter, Allah has given orders to the children of Adam or humans to cover their genitals, in this verse there is no mention of other creatures created by Allah who were ordered to cover their genitals. Therefore, covering the genitals can distinguish humans from other creatures.
2. Islam is a perfect religion
The second purpose of covering the genitals is to show that Islam is a perfect religion, because every aspect of life has been clearly regulated in the Al-Quran and Allah as the creator knows all the needs of his creatures.
3. Avoid sins
Covering the genitals is a command from Allah that must be obeyed, therefore if a servant carries out an order and stays away from Allah’s prohibitions, the servant will avoid sins.
4. As a test of obedience
Carrying out all orders and staying away from His prohibitions is a form of obedience test. Allah wants to see which Muslims will carry out Allah’s commands and stay away from His prohibitions, therefore not everyone can claim to be a believer.
5. As the identity of a Muslim
Covering the genitals can be the identity or differentiator of a Muslim from humans with other religions. Through his clothes or by looking at people will know that someone is Muslim or not. This is also explained in the letter Al Ahzab verse 59.
6. Protecting a woman
The sixth purpose of covering the nakedness is to protect a woman from slander and other dangers such as crime. Today there are many crimes and the target of victims is women, by wearing closed clothes, women can avoid these unwanted crimes.
7. Prevent disease
There are several diseases whose transmission starts from touch. For this reason, covering the genitals can prevent Muslims from contracting the disease.
8. Can increase piety
By obeying all of Allah’s commands a Muslim can increase his piety, by covering his genitals a Muslim can always guard his heart and be motivated to always increase his faith.
Awra is a boundary or part of a person’s body that may not be exhibited or seen by non-mahram people, both men and women. Generally, most people focus more on the boundaries of female genitalia, even though men also have genitalia boundaries that need attention.
Covering the nakedness for someone who is not used to it also requires strong determination and enthusiasm to emigrate in order to increase their piety. In learning how to strengthen this determination, the book Secrets of Successful Migration is here for Matobers.
C. Limits of Male Aurat
According to Imam Nawawi, regarding male genitalia there are five opinions in the schools of thought, but what is written and is authentically true is according to the book written by Imam Syafii, male genitalia is between the navel and knees, but the navel and knees are not male genitalia . Then it was further explained that if a man is praying and his knees are visible, then the man’s prayer is still valid and not invalidated.
There is a hadith which explains about male genitalia, Abu Darda said that, “I sat near the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Then Abu Bakr faced him while lifting his clothes until his knees were visible.” Then the Prophet Muhammad SAW said, “Your friend is in a dispute.” Then Abu Bakr greeted him. (Hadith History of Bukhari Muslim).
From this hadith, it can be seen more clearly that a man’s knees are not genitalia. Even so, the Apostle always covered his knees, this is also explained in the hadith narrated by Bukhari, along with his hadith.
From Abu Musa Al-Asy’ari, the Prophet Muhammad SAW sat in a place where there was water in a state of his clothes uncovered up to both knees or one of his knees, when Uthman came, he closed it. (Narrated by Bukhari).
D. Limits of female genitalia
In contrast to men, the boundaries of female genitalia are wider, some argue that the face and palms are female genitalia, so they must be covered, some also argue that the face and palms are not genitalia and do not have to be covered. This depends on what school a Muslim adheres to, so they are not confused in applying it.
According to Imam Nawawi, a woman’s private parts are the entire body apart from the face and the palms of the hands. He also said that women may show their face and both palms up to their wrists, as well as when praying.
This was explained further by Ibn Hajar Al Haitami, he said that the boundaries of the face that become the genitals of women start from the place where the hair grows to where the two jaws or chin meet forward, while the lower part of the face or chin and beard are not included in the boundaries of the genitalia. .
It also explains the boundaries of the face horizontally, namely what appears or is visible (dhohir) between the two ears. The visible meaning means something physically like a nose. From this explanation, according to Ibn Hajar the face is something that appears and appears on the surface of the face and is not included in the genitalia that must be covered.
This explanation is that it is forbidden to show the limits of genitalia to someone who is not a mahram, but in Islam it is also regulated that genitalia cannot be shown to relatives or friends.
According to the Shafii and Hanafi schools of thought, what women’s genitals cannot be shown to their relatives is between the navel and the knees, however, according to the Hanbali school, what women’s genitals cannot be shown to their relatives is the entire body apart from the face, head, neck, hands, feet, and calves.
In contrast to the Hanbali school, according to the Maliki school, the private parts of women that may not be shown to relatives are the whole body except the face, head, neck and both hands and feet. The difference lies in the calves which are the boundaries of the genitals. Regulations regarding the limits of female genitalia with relatives or relatives are also limitations on female genitalia with fellow women
To learn how to be a good Muslim woman, Matobers can read the book Becoming a Muslim Woman Liked by Many People, which is not only judged by appearances, but also by herself.
E. Limits of Girls’ Aurat
Apart from the private parts of women and men, some scholars are of the opinion that the genitalia of young girls also need to be protected. In the Hanafi school, girls aged four years or less do not have private parts, but after that age, namely the age of ten, girls’ genitals are the anus and genitals and their surroundings.
Meanwhile, according to the Syafi’i school of thought, the genitalia of young children from infancy to adulthood are the same as those of adult women, namely the entire body except for the palms of the hands up to the wrists, face and feet.
Of course all opinions regarding the limits of genitalia can be applied in accordance with the schools that the readers adhere to and believe in the truth.
F. Proof of Closing Aurat
The command to cover the genitals has been regulated in the Qur’an and hadith, here are the arguments for covering the genitals. The command to cover the private parts was sent down through Surah Al Mu’minun verses 5-6, the verse reads, “(believers) are people who guard their private parts. Except for their wives or their female slaves, then they are not blameworthy.” (QS. Al Mu’minun: 5-6).
When the verse was revealed, the believers competed to pull the cloth around them and look for cloth or objects that could cover their private parts. The letter was also sent down to give orders to Muslims to immediately cover up and protect their private parts so that they are not seen by someone who is not a mahram or does not have the right to see them.
To understand the Hadith and the Qur’an more deeply, you can use the book Mts Kls.Vii Let’s Understand Al-Quran Hadith/ K2019 by Nur Hadi et al. to make a reference to understand the meaning behind it.
Another argument about covering the genitals is as follows:
1. Hadith narrated by Muslim no 338
“Don’t let a man see (other) male genitalia, and don’t let a woman see (other) female genitalia. A man may not be with other men in one cloth, and neither can a woman be with other women in one cloth.
2. Hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhi no 2794
“O Messenger of Allah, regarding our private parts, to whom can we show them and to whom can we not show them? Rasulullah replied: “cover your private parts except for your wife or your female slave.” Mu’awiyah said: O Messenger of Allah, what if someone is in the middle of a crowd who see each other? Rasulullah replied:
“If you are able to keep your nakedness from being seen, then do it. That is, you don’t see other people’s nakedness, and other people don’t see yours.” Mu’awiyah said: O Messenger of Allah, what if someone is alone? Rasulullah replied: “Allah has more right to be ashamed of Him than to humans.”
3. Hadith narrated by Baihaqi no 3362
“What is below the navel and above the two knees is the genitals” This one hadith is a hadith about the limits of male genitalia.
4. Hadith narrated by Abu Daud no 4017
“Keep (cover) your nakedness except for the wife or slave you have.”
5. Quran surah Al-Ahzab verse 59
“O Prophet, say to your wives, your daughters and the wives of the believers: “Let them stretch their headscarves all over their bodies.” That is so that they are easier to recognize, therefore they are not disturbed. And Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful. “
6. Hadith narrated by Abu Daud no 41440
“Asma’ bint Abu Bakr once met the Prophet sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam wearing light clothes. So the Prophet sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam turned away from her and said, “O Asma’, in fact a woman when she has menstruated (has reached puberty), cannot be seen from herself except this and this”, he pointed to her face and the palms of her hands.”
7. Quran letter An-Nur verse 31
“Say to men who believe, “Let them restrain their eyes, and guard their private parts; that is purer for them, verily Allah is all-knowing of what they do.” Say to women who believe, “Let them restrain their eyes, and guard their private parts, and let them not show their ornaments, except what (ordinary) is visible from them. And let them cover their veils over their breasts, and do not show their ornaments, except to their husbands, or their fathers, or their husbands’ fathers, or their sons, or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons, or Muslim women, or the slaves they owned, or male servants who have no desire (towards women) or children who do not understand about women’s nakedness. And let them not strike their feet so that the ornaments they hide will be known.”
8. Quran surah Al-A’raf verse 31
“O son of Adam, wear your beautiful clothes every (entering) the mosque, eat and drink, and don’t overdo it. Surely Allah does not like those who are excessive.”
9. Quran surah Al-Ahzab verse 59
“O Prophet, say to your wives, your daughters and the wives of the believers, “Let them stretch their headscarves all over their bodies!”
That is so that they are easier to recognize, therefore they are not disturbed. and Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
10. Quran surah Al-Maarij verses 29-30
“And those who guard their private parts, except for their wives or the slaves they have, then indeed they are not reprehensible in this matter.
11. Hadith narrated by At-Tirmidhi no 1173
“Women are nakedness, if she leaves the house, Satan will adorn her.”
12. Quran surah Al-A’raf verse 22
“So the devil persuaded them (to eat the fruit) with deceit. When they both tasted the fruit of the wood, their private parts appeared to them, and they began to cover them with the leaves of paradise. Then their Lord called to them, “Didn’t I forbid you both from that tree and I told you, that the devil is a real enemy to you both?
Those are the arguments for covering the genitals. From this argument, it can be concluded that genitalia is a boundary that must be covered by a Muslim, both male and female. These boundaries have been clearly regulated in the Al-Quran and hadith. Indeed, there are several opinions of scholars who have different views regarding women’s private parts, but this is your choice as a Muslim and you may follow whatever school you believe in.
Allah’s command about covering the genitals is solely a good command to protect His servants from evil and bad deeds that can cause losses. Therefore, the author hopes that this article can help readers to understand the genitalia of men and women and can practice this well.