# Mastering Statistical Analysis: Understanding the Different Types, Methods and Applications

Statistical analysis is a powerful method for understanding patterns and trends within data. By using numerical analysis, this technique helps to eliminate bias and provide accurate interpretations of research, statistical models, and surveys.

Statistical analysis is an essential tool for analyzing large amounts of data and identifying common patterns and trends.

It allows businesses and institutions to make meaningful conclusions from raw and unstructured data, and use this information to make important decisions and predictions about the future.

At its core, statistical analysis is the science of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to identify patterns and trends.

This process involves working with numerical data and is used by a wide range of organizations to extract valuable insights and make data-driven decisions.

## Types of Stastitical Analysis

There are six types of statistical analysis: descriptive and inferential, also known as modeling.

### 1. Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics is a method used by organizations to summarize and present their data in an easy-to-understand format.

This approach typically involves creating summary charts, graphs, and tables that provide a clear picture of the data, rather than relying on raw and unorganized data.

Some of the key measures used in descriptive statistics include the mode, median, and mean, as well as the range, variance, and standard deviation.

However, it is important to note that descriptive statistics is not used to draw conclusions or make predictions about the data.

### 2. Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics is a method that allows organizations to take data from a representative sample and use it to make conclusions about a larger population.

This approach goes beyond simply summarizing data and provides a way to infer broader truths. To do this, inferential statistics relies on finding a representative sample from which to draw conclusions about a larger population.

However, it is important to note that there is always uncertainty when extrapolating from a limited set of data to a larger population, and inferential statistics accounts for this by estimating the uncertainty in predictions.

### 3. Predictive Analysis

Predictive statistical analysis is a branch of statistical analysis that focuses on using historical data to identify trends and make predictions about future events.

This type of analysis utilizes advanced techniques such as machine learning algorithms, data mining, data modeling, and artificial intelligence to analyze data and make predictions.

Predictive statistical analysis is used in a variety of fields, including finance, marketing, and healthcare, to make data-driven decisions and forecast future outcomes.

### 4. Prescriptive Analysis

Prescriptive analysis is a form of statistical analysis that not only analyzes data, but also suggests the best course of action based on the results.

This type of analysis goes beyond simply identifying trends and patterns, it provides recommendations and solutions to decision-makers based on the insights gained from the data.

It is designed to help organizations make informed and strategic decisions, by providing a clear path forward based on the data.

### 5. Exploratory Data Analysis

Exploratory analysis is a type of data analysis that is similar to inferential analysis, but with a focus on exploring unknown associations within the data.

It is a method of investigating and discovering new patterns and relationships within a dataset.

Unlike inferential analysis which is used to make predictions about a larger population, exploratory analysis is used to explore the data and understand it better.

It helps in identifying the underlying structure of the data, and any potential outliers, anomalies, or trends that may be present.

### 6. Causal Analysis

Causal statistical analysis is a method of data analysis that focuses on identifying the cause and effect relationship between different variables in a dataset.

In other words, it examines how one variable may be responsible for changes in another variable. This type of analysis is useful for businesses and organizations looking to understand the reasons behind certain outcomes, such as failure.

By identifying the underlying causes of a problem, organizations can take steps to prevent similar issues from happening in the future.

The analysis can be used to predict the effect of certain actions on other variables, which will enable the organization to take proactive steps to avoid any negative consequences of their actions.

## Statistical Analysis Process

Given below are the 5 steps to conduct a statistical analysis that you should follow:

Step 1: Identify and describe the nature of the data that you are supposed to analyze.

Step 2: The next step is to establish a relation between the data analyzed and the sample population to which the data belongs.

Step 3: The third step is to create a model that clearly presents and summarizes the relationship between the population and the data.

Step 4: Prove if the model is valid or not.

Step 5: Use predictive analysis to predict future trends and events likely to happen.

## Statistical Analysis Method

There are many different techniques used in data analysis, but the following 5 are among the most popular and widely used methods:

### 1. Mean

Mean, or average, is a simple and commonly used method of statistical analysis. It determines the overall trend of the data by calculating the sum of the numbers in the data set, then dividing by the number of data points.

However, it is important to note that using mean as the only statistical indicator can lead to inaccurate decision making.

### 2. Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is another widely used tool in data analysis. It examines the deviation of different data points from the mean of the entire data set, and determines how spread out the data is around the mean.

This method can be used to determine if research outcomes can be generalized to the larger population.

### 3. Regression

Regression is a statistical method used to determine the relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable. It can be used to predict future trends and events.

### 4. Hypothesis Testing

Hypothesis testing is used to test the validity of a conclusion or argument against a data set.

The hypothesis is an assumption made at the beginning of the research and can be supported or disproven based on the results of the analysis.

### 5. Sample Size Determination

Sample size determination or data sampling is a technique used to select a representative sample from a larger population, when the population is too large to study in its entirety.

There are several different data sampling techniques, such as snowball sampling, convenience sampling, and random sampling.