Understanding Population Dynamics and Population Dynamics Factors

Population dynamics – Every species on earth must have a habitat or a place to survive. Habitat itself can be said as a place where living things live for plants or animals. Therefore, the habitat is not only inhabited by one species, but there are many species that live in one habitat. The number of species that live in one habitat is due to support the food chain, so that each species can survive properly.

Talking about animals will never end, there is always something to talk about. The number of animal species in one habitat is no stranger, starting from the animals that are the lowest in the food chain and the animals that are the highest in the food chain. Therefore, there will always be animals that die in a habitat. With animals that die and survive, the growth of animal species will always change.

In addition, in a habitat, animals that die are not only preyed upon by predators, but there are also animals that die because of fighting over a territory and this is known as competition among animals. In their natural habitat, competition among animals is normal, so there’s nothing to worry about.

Changes or growth in species in animals can also be referred to as animal population dynamics. The occurrence of animal population dynamics is not only caused by the death and survival of animal species, both naturally (predators and animals that are preyed on) or from competition.

Friend, want to know more about the understanding of animal population dynamics and the causes of their occurrence? This article will discuss the understanding of population dynamics to the causes of population dynamics.

Definition of Population Dynamics

Population dynamics cannot be separated from the science of ecology. Ecology is a branch of science that discusses or studies how living things can survive in their habitat by making contact with other living things and non-living things in their environment.

At that time, the science of ecology developed very fast when compared with population dynamics. The development of ecological science was developed into other fields, such as the field of botany and zoology. The development of ecological science begins with studying the geography of plants that can grow and develop into a plant community, resulting in plant ecology.

The emergence of plant ecology made scientists begin to develop their studies by discussing or studying population dynamics or population ecology. Over time, the science of population dynamics has developed. The experts who developed this population dynamics theory, such as Lotka (1925) and Volterra (1926). The two experts developed social dynamics using an experimental approach.

Not only these two experts, in the 1940s to 1950s there were two other figures who developed this population dynamics with the concepts of intrinsic and aggressive behavior.

Based on the developments that have occurred in population dynamics, population dynamics is divided into two words, dynamics is a growth or decrease that occurs in a living thing. While the population is a group of species that live and develop and live in a habitat by using the natural resources in that habitat to survive.

So, population dynamics is the increase and decrease in the number of species that occur in a habitat caused by various things, ranging from competition between species, predation, to changing natural conditions.

Causes of Population Dynamics in Animals

Population dynamics in animals do not just happen, but there are causes that make population dynamics occur. The following will explain the causes of population dynamics in animals.

1. Predation Interaction

In every life that is lived by living things, there will always be such thing as interaction. One of the interactions that occur in an animal ecosystem is the interaction of predation. Predation interactions are interactions that occur between predatory or predatory animals and prey or prey animals. The existence of this interaction indicates that predatory animals are above prey animals in a food chain that occurs in one ecosystem.

Predators or predators are animals that will prey on their prey to survive. In other words, the survival of predators is very dependent on the presence of prey or prey. If the prey is no longer in an ecosystem, then the predator or predator will slowly be unable to survive and experience extinction.

Prey or prey are animals that are preyed upon by predators. Prey can also be interpreted as a source of food for predators. Prey can survive by eating food in their habitat. If there are no predators to eat the prey, then periodically the prey population will continue to increase.

2. Competition Interaction

If predation interactions are related to predators and prey, then the competition interactions are different. Competition interactions are interactions that occur in animals with the same species or with different species to fight over something, such as a partner or lover, territory, leadership, and so on.

In this interaction, the animals will compete against each other, until a winner emerges. The winner will get or obtain something that has been contested and the animal that loses will be injured and will slowly die. The death of the animal from the fight indicates that there has been a reduction in species, although it is not that significant.

This competition interaction can be said as an event to show or show strength and who is more worthy of getting something that is contested. If the loser will experience injury and death, then the winner of the fight will be respected by the animals, both of the same or different species.

Competition interactions are divided into two, namely intraspecific competition interactions and interspecific competition interactions. Intraspecific competition is competition that occurs between individuals of the same species. Meanwhile, interspecific competition is competition that occurs between individuals of different species.

3. Natural Disasters

On earth there must be something called a natural disaster. The occurrence of natural disasters cannot be predicted, starting from earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and floods. All these disasters will affect population dynamics in animals. This is because the habitat of animals affected by natural disasters will be damaged, so it will take quite a long time for them to recover as before.

It is in the recovery process that there are animals that are able to survive and there are also those that have to die because they are not able to survive. The existence of death in animal species that indicates the occurrence of population dynamics. Animals that are not able to survive can be caused by a lack of food sources or die due to the impact of natural disasters.

For example, natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions, burning lots of plants will cause animals to starve because they have difficulty finding food. Not only that, there are several animals that die because they are burned when forest fires occur. The existence of animal deaths in natural disasters makes animal species experience shortages which can disrupt an ecosystem.

4. Human Activity

The destruction of animal habitats is not only caused by natural disasters, but can also be caused by human activities. It is undeniable that the ever-developing era has actually damaged an animal’s habitat. The destruction of this habitat can make animals look for food to the human environment. Humans who feel disturbed by the arrival of animals that can harm them, then try to drive the animals away.

Habitat destruction caused by human activities has occurred a lot. We can see an example of seawater pollution due to the large amount of plastic or non-plastic waste. Some of the trash is still floating on the surface of the sea and some has sunk under the sea.

Not only are marine habitats damaged due to human activities, but forest fires can be regarded as destruction of animal habitats caused by humans as well. Forest fires can be caused directly or indirectly. Forest fires are indirectly in the form of global warming, so that the climate is damaged. Deterioration of the climate can lead to a very long dry season, it is from this dry season that forest fires are most likely to occur.

Damage to animal habitats caused by human activities can cause ecosystems in animals to be damaged, so that animals will find it difficult to survive because they cannot find food. Reduced animals in a habitat will bring up a dynamic animal population. If the population dynamics show that an animal species has experienced a very significant decrease in numbers, then that animal species is on the verge of extinction.


The population dynamics that occur in animals cannot be separated from an ecosystem. Ecosystem in the Big Indonesian Dictionary means the diversity of a community and its environment that functions as a natural ecological unit. In other words, an ecosystem is a unitary environment and living things that influence each other.

Meanwhile, in the Law on the Environment Number 23 of 1997, ecosystem is an arrangement of elements of the environment which is a complete unified whole and influences each other in forming environmental balance, stability and productivity.

The ecosystem itself has two forming components, namely biotic and abiotic. Biotic components are ecosystem components consisting of living things, such as plants, animals and humans. While the abiotic components are components that consist of something that is not alive, such as air, water, soil, temperature, humidity, sunlight, minerals, acidity, and topography.

With an ecosystem, every animal can get food, either from humans or from nature itself. A good ecosystem shows that the relationship between animals and humans and their environment is not problematic, so that animals are able to survive properly. The more animal species that survive, the less animal species experience extinction.


Habitat in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI) is a place where certain organisms live or a natural place to live (for plants and animals) or the original environment. Based on KBBI, the dynamics of animal populations will always be related to the habitat of the animals themselves. To survive, animals must be able to adapt to their habitat or environment, be it weather, humidity or climate. If it is not able to adapt to its habitat, then the animal species will experience death.

Habitat is not only a place to survive, but habitat is also a place for animals to breed. Animals that reproduce will produce good offspring too, so that the population of the animal species is maintained. Maintaining animal populations, the food chain in one ecosystem is maintained. To protect offspring, males and females must look after and protect their children from predators until they grow up.

If the habitat of the animals has begun to be damaged, then where should these animals live? Therefore, it should be for every human being to try to protect the habitats inhabited by animals.

Habitat Component

Based on National Geographic , habitat components are divided into four, namely space, food, water, and shelter.

1. Space

A habitat inhabited by living things must have space so that every living thing that lives can breed and find food properly. If the habitat does not have space, it will be difficult for the animals that live in that habitat to breed and find food. This can cause the population of animal species to experience a fairly rapid reduction.

Each animal requires a different space depending on the needs of each species. For example, the space needed by an ant is different from that needed by a lion. Ants that only need a few centimeters to create space. The space created by the ants serves to store food, so the ants can survive.

Meanwhile, lions need a wider space so they can prey on their prey easily. In addition, lions also need a large enough space to find and get the female.

2. Food

Every animal will not be able to survive without food. With food, the energy possessed by animals is collected again, thus avoiding death. The availability of food in a habitat must be ensured to be sufficient, if it is not sufficient it does not rule out the possibility that fellow species will prey on each other. However, the availability of too much food is also not for a habitat, so it can cause damage to an ecosystem.

For example, too many algae plants will cause the nitrogen content in the water to exceed its limit, so that the oxygen absorbed by the algae becomes excessive. Things like this can reduce oxygen in the water, so that other aquatic creatures are disturbed.

3. Water

All living things need water, including animals. With the presence of water, the animal will not experience the name dehydration. This dehydration can cause death in animals. Every living thing needs water in different amounts. In addition, the water content in a habitat also varies.

For example, the water needs of living things that live in waters are different from the water needs of living things that live on land.

4. Shelter

Habitat must be able to serve as a shelter for animals. In this case, the intended shelter is protected from predators and shelter from the weather. This shelter is usually in the form of large trees and grass. In addition, there are some animals that take shelter underground.


The dynamics of animal populations are strongly influenced by human activities and the animal species themselves. Human activities can have a positive or negative impact on population dynamics. Meanwhile, animal species can affect population dynamics by carrying out predation interactions or competition interactions. If we want to see animal populations last longer, then we as humans must protect their habitats and ecosystems.