Undeniably, many benefits can be obtained from labour training.
Training that is carried out appropriately can make workers more effective and efficient, ranging from increasing production and income to increasing profits while reducing costs and other inefficiencies.
Even the proper training can make workers happier and more satisfied.
On the other hand, creating practical exercises is a challenging matter. There are many common problems that we can find. One problem is a mistake in identifying training needs.
Wrong calculations may not make training support the actual business goals, and training may also not improve some problems.
Training Evaluation Categories
Based on the steps of implementing the training evaluation, it can be divided into 3, namely in the areas of planning, process and results/products.
1. Planning evaluation
The planning evaluation process assesses how training preparation has been carried out.
Then how to evaluate the plan? Here’s an explanation.
- Training goals
- Determine participants
- Time frame
- Determine the training method
2. Process evaluation
Evaluation in this process area focuses on how well the training was carried out or how the review went. The following are appropriate methods for evaluating the training process:
- Trainer’s observation
- 3rd party observation
- Discussion with participants
- Meeting staff
3. Evaluation of results/products
The measurement focuses on the area results of the training itself and how it affects the company after training implementation. A way to evaluate the results/products of training
- Determining Time
- Using the Triangulation technique
- Impact analysis
- Target achievement
- Satisfy users
The division described above is seen from the order of implementation,
KirkPatrick Model Training
There is also a tiered evaluation model operationalized by training or operator training.
Donald Kirkpatrick, PhD, a professor at University of Wisconsin, coined this model. Donald is also a president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).
This evaluation model was originally the subject of his research for a doctoral degree. This model is known as the Kirkpatrick evaluation model.
We will discuss the Kirkpatrick evaluation model up to level 4. However, many other media explain evaluation to a more advanced level by measuring how much influence the training has from a financial perspective.
Level 1: Reactions
This level 1 evaluation measures the participants’ perspective when the training is completed. The primary purpose of the reaction evaluation process is to get feedback on participants’ reactions from the learning experience process.
It is related to class, materials, instructions and the relevance of the material to their work.
This process is carried out by making a list of questions (between 8-15 items) that you want to provide feedback on and then creating a form of quantified data from participants’ reactions.
The state can also include suggestions for future training development. It is necessary to ensure that participants fill out the form entirely. The latter is advised not to include names or other identities.
Level 2: Learning
In the training process, there are at least 3 potential goals to be achieved. There is increasing knowledge, increasing skills and being able to change behavior at work, now at level 2, this will measure the knowledge area of the participants.
The method used in evaluating learning can be paper-based, online or a performance test. It should be noted that all participants must complete this learning evaluation stage so that the measurement is maximized.
The contents questions that will be asked can refer to the taxonomy of bloom according to the topic of the training carried out. The results of this evaluation are expected to be the basis for further treatment to be carried out.
Level 3: Behavior
Evaluation level 3 is to ascertain whether the material from the training obtained can change the trainees’ behavior. This evaluation level will undoubtedly increase in difficulty compared to the previous level.
Several assumptions make why this level is more challenging to do.
Among others, the trainee cannot change his behavior until he gets the opportunity to do it. It is difficult to predict when the desired behavior will appear and what also influences the influence of external aspects that can make trainees implement their behavir.
The way to do a level 3 evaluation is to determine when the expected behavior appears. It is better that the review can be done before and after the training. The process includes:
- Considering the assessment methods that can be done
- Repeating the evaluation to ensure that the behavior that appears is valid
- Ensuring that all participants/ samples get an assessment.
Level 4: Results
This evaluation stage is the most critical and challenging stage to do, where many things will be considered to determine the suitability of the training.
Several questions can be applied to the evaluation of the results stage regarding the thre below:
- How much impact does the improvement in the quality of trainees has.
- How much the has productivity increased, and what effect it has on consumers
- How much the economic impact can be suppressed, and many other questions.
The process carried out for level 4 evaluation can use a control group, identify the right time to find out the achievement of results, assess before and after training if possible, and repeat the assessment.
It should be noted that this stage focuses on the effects of the activity in any area.
The Need for Evaluation of Training Programs for Organizations
There are various main functions in Human Resource Management (HR), and one of them is the evaluation function, in addition to the parts of planning, organizing and executing.
Evaluation of training programs (training program evaluation) refers to collecting the results needed to determine whether a training program is running effectively or not.
The effectiveness of ongoing training programs must be evaluated by an organization to determine whether the resources they have invested have been appropriately used.
This includes a training program activity, where the organization can evaluate the extent to which the results of the training can be applied by participants in work.
Also, the impact of the training program on achieving performance targets. The training program is one of the methods for developing the capacity, knowledge, attitudes and skills of an organization’s HR.
If the knowledge capacity, attitudes and skills of human resources development, organizational goals can be achieved. To create such capacity development that is in line with corporate objectives.
It is necessary to adjust to the needs of HR competencies, strategic plans and company business priorities so that training programs are right on target.